Search
Browse
Create
Log in
Sign up
Log in
Sign up
Upgrade to remove ads
Only $2.99/month
Physics Midterm Review
STUDY
Flashcards
Learn
Write
Spell
Test
PLAY
Match
Gravity
Terms in this set (81)
Buoyancy
The difference in pressure between the top and bottom of a submerged object
Fluid
Has not definite shape
Surfaced Tension is cause by
Cohesive forces within liquid. Ex. beads of a newly waxed car
Natural Processes
Dispersal
To find pressure
F (weight)/A( area)
To find buoyant force
F=wierdP(v)(g) . g is 9.8
If volume is in L then multiply by .001 so it will equal m^3
Convection
occurs in fluids that are warmer at the bottom. the movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in transfer of heat.
Radiation
Energy travels through a vacuum. is energy transmitted in waves or a stream of particles.
Conduction
the transfer of heat between two parts of a stationary system, caused by a temperature difference between the parts.
transmission through a conductor.
Specific Heat
The energy needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance 1 K
Entropy
a thermodynamic quantity representing the unavailability of a system's thermal energy for conversion into mechanical work, often interpreted as the degree of disorder or randomness in the system.
A 100 percent efficient energy would produce no increase in entropy.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
The second law of thermodynamics states that whenever there is an opportunity for energy dispersal the energy always spreads out
Find transfer of thermal energy
Q=mC(tf-ti)
C is specific heat and can be found on the chart
Gravitational potential energy
The stored energy due to gravity. The height to which the object has risen is determind by using a reference level, the position where GPE is defined to be zero.
To find gravitational potential energy
GPE=mgh
g equals 9.8
h equals height
m=mass in kg
Find velocity (using conservation of energy)
3 STEPS
1.) Find GPE
2.) Then use the conservation of energy formula
Use GPE as zero and KE as the number you found for GPE
3.) Use kinetic energy formula
plug in numbers and use GPE number for KE again
Energy
Able to produce a change both in itself and the world around it
Work
Work is done when a force that is applied to an object moves that object.
1.) FORCE
2.) DISPACEMENT
3.) CAUSE
Example of no work being done: carrying the book down the hall
work does not take time into account. (Running/walking a mile , same distance) same amount of work regardless of the time it takes to complete it.
Ideal Machine
Has equal input and output work. Its efficiency is 100%
Efficiency of a machine
Is defined as the ratio of output work to input.
Lever
Changes direction of force, changes magnitude
EX. door handle, bottle opener, crowbar, claws of a hammer
Pulley
Changes direction of force
EX.) Window blinds, cranes, sails on a ship, flagpole, elevator
Wheel and Axle
Changes magnitude of force
EX.)Wheels, gears, electric fan, steering wheel
Inclined Plane
Changes the direction
EX.) Ramps
Wedges
Changes direction of force
EX.) axle, knife, needle, nail, staple, ice pick, doorstep
Screw
Changes magnitude of force
EX.) screw, drillbit, jar lid, faucet handle, light bulb
BIke pedal
Lever attached to wheel/axle
Machines
Changes magnitude or direction of applied force
Units
W= 1 Joule=1 newtonXmeters
P=1 Watt=1 joule/second
Closed System
does not gain or lose mass
Find Work
W=Fdcos (degree)
F=force
d=displacement
make sure you are in degree on calc
Find mass given power, vertical displacement and time
P=mgd/t
Find efficiency
THREE STEPS
1.) find MA
2.) FInd IMA
3.) do MA/IMA then times by 100
Power
Rate at which a certain amount of work is done
Collision
Ball A collides with ball B. The force ball A exerts on ball B IS EQUAL IN MAGNITUDE AND OPPOSITE IN DIRECTION compared to the force ball B exerts on ball A.
In order for momentum to be conserved
the system must be both closed and isolated.
Isolated system
the net external force on that system is zero
gravitational field
surrounds anything that has mass
Recoil
(of an atom, a nucleus, or a particle) to undergo a change in momentum as a result either of a collision with an atom, a nucleus, or a particle or of the emission of a particle.
FInd impulse
Fdeltat=m(vf-vi)
FInd velocity when given initial masses and velocities and final velocity of one object
Use : (m1)(v1)=(m2)(v2)
Units of measurements for rotation
radian°rees
Centrifugal "force"
What is apparently observed as centrifugal "force" is instead the effect of centripetal force
Moment of INertia
The measurement of how much an object resists rotation
FInd torque
T=Frsin(degree)
r=length
F=applied force
remember to change units to meters
Find seesaw question
(f1)(r1)=(f2)(r2)
r=distance from balance point
Seesaw
MArci and Juan are on opposite ends of a seesaw. Although they have difference masses, the seesaw balances because the net torque is ZERO
FInd moment of Inertia
I=mr^2
m=mass
r=distance from center of rotation
again do not forget to change cm into m for radius
Einsteins Theory of Gravity
Space around things are curved
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
There is a gravitational attraction between any pair of objects
Kepler's first law
States that the planets move in ellipses with the sun at the center
Kepler's second law
States that an imaginary line from the sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times
Kepler's third law
the ratio of the squares of the periods to the cubes of their average distances from the sun is the same for every one of the planets.
compares the orbital period and radius of orbit of a planet to those of other planets.
Components of a projectile's velocity
They are indifferent/ indpendent
Direction of velocity in circular motion
Tangent
Direction of acceleration in circular motion
towards the center
Find maximum height of a projectile given initial velocity and angle of tractory
First find the y vector component
then Vfy=0m/s
a=-9.8
USE FORMULA FROM CHAPTER THREE
called Velocity with constant acceleration
Find centripetal accleration
ac=v2/r
Find centripetal force
Fnet=m(ac)
ac= centripetal acceleration from answer before
Resultants
A vector that represents the sum of two other vectors; it always points from the first vectors tail to the last vectors tip.
Equilibrants
A force that places an object in equilibrium; the same magnitude as the resultant but opposite in direction
FInd coefficent of kinetic friction
Use Ff=(coefficent) Fn
Fn=normal force
F=mg so times mass by 9.8 then plug into first equation
Force
a push or pull
If you push against a wall, the wall pushes back against you with equal force
the normal force is the perpendicular force exerted by a surface on another object.
the force exerted by a fluid on an object moving through the fluid is the drag force.
Equilibrium
An object is in equilibrium if the net force on it is zero
Relationship between mass and weight
your mass does not change wherever you go. Your weight however is due to gravity pulling down on you so if you went to mars where there is less or no gravity your weight would change. Your mass would be the same on Mars.
Tension
The force exerted by any segment of a string or rope on an adjoining segment
Find acceleration given mass and two opposing forces
a= Fnet/m
subtract the two opposing forces to get fnet
Find force of gravity
easy you got this
Fg=mg
use 9.8 for g
Find tension given mass
Ft=Fg
so use Fg=mg
Relationship between acceleration and velocity vectors
when the vectors for acceleration and velocity are pointing in opposite direction, the object is slowing down
when the vectors are pointing in the same direction then the object is speeding up
Free fall
Depends on gravity
air resistance and fg are equal in terminal velocity (dont know if that is important)
Find final velocity given initial velocity and acceleration
use velocity with constant acceleration
Find velocity with time spent in free fall
vf=vi+at
FInd position
use position with average acceleration formula
vector
direction and magnitude
scalar
magnitude
Displacement
Difference from initial position to final position
direction
total distance covered
converting units
K H D B D C M
scientific notation
negative exponent move to left
positive move to right
SI BAse units
length=meters
mass=kilograms
time=second
temperature=kelvin
amount of substance=mole
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Mechanics Physics AS level
60 terms
Physics Midterm Review
42 terms
Physics Midterm Review
42 terms
HONORS PHYSICS MIDTERM TERMINOLOGY
90 terms
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Vocabulary for the college bound student Chapter 4…
12 terms
Vocabulary for the College-Bound Student: Chapter…
12 terms
Chapter 4
2 terms
Chapter 12 and 13 Grammar Test
14 terms