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planned economy

economy that relies on a centralized government to control all or most factors of production and to make all or most production and allocation decisions

mixed economy

market-based economic system with limited government involvement

pure economy

an economic system with no government involvement so that private firms account for all production


Little creativity


Most creativity


No competition


Stipulations are passed by the government to regulate private production


Surplus exists

Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Great Britain?

natural resources, wealth population willing to invest, stable gov. new trains, urbanization

iron, coal

two natural resources in Great Britain


the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban

agricultural revolution

A time when new inventions such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster. The production of food rose dramatically. (population increase)

adam smith

Economist who wrote Wealth of Nations; Laissez-Faire economics, designed modern capitalism


an economic system based on private property and free enterprise

division of labor

the breaking down of a job into separate, smaller tasks to be performed individually

factory acts of 1833 & 1844

Created factory workday for children between 9-13 to 8 hours a day. Not applicable to home. Outlawed child labor under 9-factory owners establish schools. Destroyed family unit.

bentham and mills

British philosopher who's analysis of law and legislation led to the development of utilitarianism, These men were instrumental in systematizing utilitarianism.


The theory that government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people.


This was the new style of art that focused on the daily lives and adventures of a common person. This style was a response to Romanticism's supernaturalism and over-emphasis on emotion

the communist manifesto

written by Marx and Engels; said that human societies have always been in warring class; put the middle class as "haves" and the working class as "have-nots"; said that IR had enriched the wealthy and impoverished the poor, predicting that the workers would overthrow the owners; inspired revolutionaries to adapt Marx's beliefs to their own situations; every country
would reach communism
would reach communism


he stated in his iron law of wages that rapid population growth would lead only to fierce competition for jobs & lower wages higher unemployment


said human population cannot continue to increase exponentially; consequences will be war, famine & disease


The application of machinery to manufacturing and other activities. Among the first processes to be mechanized were the spinning of cotton thread and the weaving of cloth in late-eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century England. (p. 603)

robert owen

utopian socialist, believed that humans would show their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment; concerned of working conditions in factories; helped pass factory acts of 1833 & 1844; utopian

enclosure movement

The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.


an early 19th century movement in art and thought that focused on emotion and nature rather than reason and scoiety


An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing

Sepoy mutiny

(1857) Hindus and Muslim sepoys refused to open cartridges that came in paper waxed with animal fat for religious reasons; killed British officers, and proclaimed restoration of the Mughal authority; had different interests, and were crushed by the British


Country with its own government but under the control of an outside power

spheres of influence

section of a country where one foreign nation enjoys special rights and powers

British tea company

Had a surplus of tea, rotting in warehouses. Given permission by the King and Parliament to have a monopoly in the America. Would sell far below market value, but have the 3 pence tax on it. Ships were not allowed to unload their tea all up and down the eastern seaboard. Boston took it one step further.

white man's burden

the belief that Europeans had a moral responsibility to civilize primitive peoples

berlin conference

Conference that German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called to set rules for the partition of Africa. It led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium.

Boer war

-diamonds and gold discovered in South Africa
- Boers (Dutch farmers) vs British
- total war in which many Boers were sent to concentration camps
- British won and Boer Republic becomes part of South African Union


political and spiritual leader during India's struggle with Great Britain for home rule

social darwinism

The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.

direct and indirect rule

-colonial power controlled the government at every level VS
-made decisions and expected that it was done by its own government british

red army

The Soviet Army during the Russian Civil War.

white army

Military units who wanted to drive out the Bolsheviks

schlieffen plan

..., Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.

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