229 terms

History Midterm

Which of the following was not a factor that stimulated English migration to the New World?
government laws that forced the migration of the poorer classes
Unlike Virginia, Maryland was established
as a religious sanctuary for persecuted Catholics from England
The major difference in the founding of the colony of Georgia was
an act of aggression and defense from the Spanish
The main staple of the Carolinas' economy by the close of the seventeenth century was
The famous English philosopher ----- wrote the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina.
John Locke
The founder of the Georgia colony was
James Oglethorpe
The Plymouth Colony was ultimately absorbed by which colony?
In Massachusetts Bay, "freeman status" was granted to adult males who
were church members
Anne Hutchinson's skillful self-defense at her trial before the Bay's magistrates was ruined by
her claim of personal revelation
Penn published brochures to market aggressively his new colony. All of the following were countries in which the brochures were published except
In ------, charges of witchcraft caused considerable turmoil in the late seventeenth century.
Puritans viewed which of the following as essential to their New England commonwealth?
a healthy family life
The most important difference between the New England and Chesapeake colonies was
the Chesapeake's much higher mortality rate
In 1647, the Massachusetts legislature ordered all townships with fifteen or more families to ------ and support with local taxes.
open an elementary school
When historians refer to the "feminization of colonial religion," they are referring to
women joining the church at a ration greater than two-to-one
Daily lives of New England residents revolved around all of the following except
business activities
Of the estimated 11 million African slaves carried to America, the great majority were sent to
Brazil and the Caribbean
What percent of the eighteenth century population f the lowlands of South Carolina was of African origin?
British authorities base their colonial commercial policies on the theory of
During the Salem witchcraft hysteria, Increase Mather and other leading Congregational ministers
urged restraint and caution
The population of the late colonial era was characterized as fairly young. It is estimated that one half of the population was under the age of
The largest group if white, non-English immigrants to the colonies were
the Scotch-Irish
What was responsible for most of the growth in the American colonies between 1700 and 1770?
natural reproduction of colonial families
The first large group of German immigrants moved to America seeking
religious tolerance
------- was the most important embodiment of the Enlightenment in America.
Benjamin Franklin
Which of the following was not a consequence of the Seven Years' War?
It revealed British discontent with America's contribution to its own defense.
Which of the following was between England and France had the greatest political and economic impact on colonial America?
the Seven Years' War
Colonial legislatures saw their primary function as
implementing the governor's policies
What did the Great Awakening, intercolonial trade, and the rise of colonial assemblies have in common?
They all contributed to a growing sense of shared identity among the colonists.
------- was responsible for authoring the Albany Plan.
Benjamin Franklin
American colonists, in the years just after the conclusion of the Seven Years' War, could be characterized best as
optimistic about the future
Although it is impossible to know exactly how many people fled America because they felt a loyalty to the British crown, all of the following are true except
they were all upper class wealthy merchants
England passed the Coercive Acts in response to
the Boston Tea Party
The boycott movement against the Stamp Act
was championed by the colonial press
The picture is of a painting of the conditions of a British prison ship. Based on this picture, the conditions could best be described as
The tensions leading to the Boston Massacre were caused by
the presence of several thousand British soldiers in Boston
The pamphlet, ------, presented justification to Americans for their break with Great Britain.
Common Sense
The American victory that brought about the French alliance occurred at
General Howe was replace by
General Clinton
the radical American group which first emerged during the Stamp Act crisis was known as
the Sons of Liberty
The ------- proposed a new form for government that was acceptable to the smaller states.
New Jersey Plan
Most new state constitutions after the American Revolution
included Declaration of Rights.
Compared with the revolutions in France, Russia, and China, the American Revolution could be characterized as
more tame and less wrenching
An important procedural decision approved at the opening of the Constitutional Convention involved
the decision to keep deliberation as secret as possible
The Newburgh Conspiracy involved
discontented officers of the Continental Army
Which of the following was not a criticism of American government under the Articles of Confederation?
It gave too much power to a central government.
The most obvious contradiction to the principles expressed in the founding of the American republic was
the continued existence of slavery in much of the nation.
He was considered the most important political figure of the Confederation Period.
Robert Morris
A major fear of the Antifederalists was that
the average voter was not educated enough to make good decisions.
How many states did not have to draft new constitutions, since they already had republican governments as part of their colonial charters?
Which of the following did Hamilton and Jefferson have in common?
faith in a republican society
Why did Spain agree to the terms of the Pinckney Treaty?
It feared the terms of Jay's Treaty.
Which of the following individuals is incorrectly matched with his position in George Washington's first Cabinet?
James Madison: Secretary of Commerce
which of the following would Alexander Hamilton have proposed?
providing government subsidies to manufacturers
During Washington's second term in office,
foreign affairs became a much more important focus.
The Genet affair involved
France's use of American ships in violation of U.S. pledges of neutrality.
The emergence of political parties in the 1790's
had both good and bad consequences for the nation at the time.
Washington's Farewell Address
advised against permanent alliances with nations that were not interested in promoting American security.
The election of 1796 was complicated by
behind-the-scenes manipulations by Alexander Hamilton.
As a result of the actions taken by John Adams while president,
the United States had harmony with France.
The Barbary States were located in
North Africa
As the chief negotiator with France, who engineered the Louisiana Purchase?
James Monroe
Jefferson's foreign policy
created more harm than good for the United States
Under Jeffersonian Republicanism,
American believed opportunities were available to them.
By 1810, one-fifth of the American population was made up of
African Americans
Thomas Jefferson's attitude toward Native Americans showed that he
respected them as people, but was not impressed by their culture.
What difficulty did Jefferson face in purchasing the Louisiana Territory?
the constitutionality of his actions
After 1800, Federalists retained control of
the judiciary
The decision in Marbury vs. Madison was the first time the Supreme Court
asserted its right to judge the constitutionality of congressional acts.
Samuel Chase's impeachment trial
maintained the independence of the judiciary
The Adams-Onis Treaty
made Florida a U.S. territory.
Between 1815 and 1824, the United States
grew rapidly in size and population
The first great federal transportation project was the
building of the National Roads.
The great canal building boom of the 1820's and 1830's ended
when canals proved to be an unprofitable means of transportation.
The most important decision of the Marshall Court was
McCullough v. Maryland
The main diplomatic challenge facing James Monroe in 1820 was
responding to the revolt of Spain's Latin American colonies.
The Monroe Doctrine
made little impression on the European powers.
The development of profitable commercial farming resulted from
the availability of good land and the revolution in marketing.
John Quincy Adams was the handpicked selection for President by President Monroe. What office did he hold in the Monroe Administration?
Secretary of State
The ------- were the NAtive American tribe that attempted to assimilate into American society.
The nullification controversy occurred in the state of
South Carolina.
------ came to symbolize the triumph of democracy.
Andrew Jackson
------- denied states the right to take Native American tribal lands.
Worcester v. Georgia
Andrew Jackson killed the national bank
by withdrawing federal deposits from it.
From Jackson's response to the nullification crisis, one can conclude that he
believed in the limited use of federal power but also that states were not truly sovereign.
Andrew Jackson's attitude toward Native Americans was that
they should be removed to areas beyond white expansion.
John Quincy Adams' victory in 1824 was aided by
Henry Clay.
The most obvious indicator of the supremacy of democracy in the United States was
the development of universal manhood suffrage.
The "Trail of Tears" refers to
the forced relocation of the Cherokees to Oklahoma.
Between 1824 and 1840, voter participation in elections
increased dramatically
Slavery's hold on the South was strengthened by the increasing importance of
short-staple cotton.
During the nineteenth century, the center of cotton production
shifted rapidly westward.
At the time of the Civil War,
the percentage of whites owning slaves was increasing.
The yeoman farmer of the south was
proud and self-reliant.
Southern proslavery arguments did not include the belief that slavery was
mandated by the United States Constitution.
Southern apologists claimed that the master-slave relationship was more humane that employer-worker relationships because
it afforded greater long-term security.
The conspiracy for slave rebellion uncovered in South Carolina in 1822 was led by
Denmark Vesey.
The foundation of the African american culture was
Free African Americans in the South were
actively involved in helping fugitive slaves.
The approach viewed by many American religious leaders as the best way to extend religious values was called
The Second Great Awakening began
on the southern frontier
The reform movement in New England began as
an effort to defend Calvinism against Enlightenment ideas
The reform movement did not inspire
dramatic changes in protestant theology.
As a reform effort, the temperance movement
was directed at a serious social problem.
An important change in the American family in the nineteenth century was
the growing significance of mutual affection in marriage.
Which of the following individuals was not a prominent preacher of the Second Great Awakening?
Henry David Thoreau
In practice, working-class families viewed the new public school
as depriving them of needed wage earners.
In theory, prisons and asylums
were to substitute for the family.
Abolitionism received its greatest support in the
small-to-medium-sized towns of the upper North.
Which of the following was not a characteristic of the Young America movement?
a weak foreign policy
The American population moved westward in the 1830's and 1840's for all of the following reasons except
loyalty to Mexico and Great Britain
The most plausible reason for the Texas Revolution was
the unwillingness of Anglo-Americans to accept Mexican rule.
Manifest Destiny was based, in part, on
the belief that God was on the side of American expansionism.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
provided the opportunity for additional expansion by the united States.
For the American economy, railroads
had an enormous effect
Between the 1830's and 1840's, most of the immigrants to the untied states came from
Western Europe
In -------, Herman Melville produced a novel, original in form and conception, to fulfill the demand of Young Americans for a new literature.
Moby Dick
The inventor of the mechanical reaper was
Cyrus McCormick
The leader of the Mormon trek to Utah was
Brigham Young
The Compromise of 1850
abolished the slave trade in the District of Columbia
The Wilmot Provisio sought to
ban slavery in the territory acquired from Mexico.
According to the principle of popular sovereignty,
the House of Representatives would determine whether a territory would have slavery.
In the Kansas-Nebraska Act, Stephen Douglas attempted to set up territorial government based on
popular sovereignty
Why did the Know-Nothings become popular?
They reflected the growing differences between the sections.
The Republican Party
was primarily a sectional party
In the 1850's the most important example of literary abolitionism was
Uncle Tom's Cabin
In the Dred Scott case, the Supreme Court decision was largely the work of
Roger Taney
The Republican Party platform in 1860
attempted to broaden the party's appeal in the North.
Individuals who opposed the expansion of slavery into the territories because the feared its effect on the labor system were know as
Free Soilers
Which of the following does not apply to Lincoln's initial policy toward the Confederacy?
the deployment of troops along "border states" to demonstrate a Union resolve to fight
Which of the following was not a provision of the Confederate Constitution?
a strong central government
The chart labeled "Resources of the Union and the Confederacy, 1861" could suggest all of the following statements as true except
The was extremely industrialized due to the expansion of railroads.
Which of the following states was not part of the Confederacy?
In the beginning, the Civil War was
a struggle to preserve the Union
Which one of the following was not a Northern advantage throughout the war?
familiar terrain and public support
To secure the necessary troops for the war,
A and B
Lincoln and Davis learned early in the war that
successful conduct of the war required active, executive leadership
The Emancipation Proclamation freed
only slaves in the Confederacy
Confederate leader were confident of British recognition, because
British textile mills were so dependent on southern cotton
A minimal Reconstruction policy was favored by
President Lincoln
Which if the following groups was disappointed by the fifteenth Amendment?
At their state constitutional conventions, Southerners were required to do all of the following except
guarantee the political and civil rights of the freedmen
The legacy of Reconstruction for most Americans was
poverty and discrimination
The small number of African American elected to sate or national office during Reconstruction demonstrated on the average
more integrity and competence then their white counterparts
Andrew Johnson was indicted by the House for his violation of the
Tenure of Office Act
The South's refusal to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment
forced the Republicans to abolish the existing Southern governments and give the vote to African Americans
The organization that symbolized most vividly "white backlash" of the Reconstruction era was
the Ku Klux Klan
Black Codes showed that
Southerners wanted African Americans to return to positions of servility
Which of the following was not a scandal during the Grant ministration?
Teapot Dome
Which of the following best describe the Plains tribes?
nomadic and warlike
Which of the following was, perhaps, the greatest Native American victory over the United States Army?
Custer's Last Stand
Which of the following was not part of the national government's policy toward Native Americans in the 1870's and 1880's?
assimilating Native Americans into urban life
Which of the following was not done by the Dawes Act?
It greatly increased the power of tribal chiefs.
The ------- was established to help provide isolated farmers with social and cultural activities.
National Grange
The Homestead Act of 1862 failed because
the land allotments ere insufficient for farming arid land.
Which of the following statements describes the journey for most settlers westward?
All members of the journey had tasks to fulfill on the trail.
in open range ranching, ranchers
rounded up wild cattle roaming free on the range
Frederick Jackson Turner was
the historian who first developed the "frontier thesis"
The Plains tribes differed from the Eastern Woodland tribes because
all of the above
The most important advances in industrialization
came in the last third of the nineteenth century
Which of the following individuals is incorrectly associated with the industry he helped found?
Henry Bessemer: railroads
Which of the following companies was not a retail store marketing its products around the country in the late nineteenth century?
After 1870, the measure of a nation's industrial progress was determined by
the production of steel
As a result of the proliferation of patents in the late nineteenth century,
American life radically changed
Which of the following was not a consequence of the advent of advertising?
Most consumers felt threatened by the new industrial goods.
In comparison to male workers, female workers
were relegated to traditional, "feminine" jobs
Why did the Knights of Labor fail?
It could not provide effective national leadership.
The Haymarket Square riot
weakened the national labor movement
The two transcontinental railroads met at
Promontory, Utah
The journalist who exposed Hoe the Other Half Lives in urban tenements was
Jacob Riis
If an American became ill in the 1870's,
home care would be the accepted form of treatment
Most Americans in the late 1880's
were church-attending Protestants.
The Comstock Law
legislated public morality
The most famous of the urban political bosses in the late nineteenth century was
William Tweed
The common-law doctrine of femme couverte
was revised to adapt to the changes of the period
As a result of the Plessy v. Ferguson decision,
African American education was to be separate but equal to white education
Booker T. Washington
believed that self-help was the best plan for African Americans
The Social Darwinists
believed the laws of nature applied to society
According to Henry George,
there was a wide gulf between the rich and poor
Why were Americans fascinated by politics during the Gilded Age?
Most Americans saw it as a form of entertainment.
Which of the following was not part of the Republican Party's platform in the post-Civil War period?
decentralized government power
The Wabash decision stated that
only the federal government could regulate intrastate trade
The Sherman Antitrust Act
was vague and at the mercy of the courts
The case United States v. E. C. Knight
narrowed the definition of trusts and monopolies
The major objective of the Alliance Movement was
to organize and politicize the American farmer
Which of the following was not a consequence of the Pullman strike?
The workers had their demands met.
William McKinley was elected president in
The major issue of the election of 1896 was
Theodore Roosevelt resigned from his position as ----- to organize the Rough Riders.
assistant secretary of the navy
Josiah Strong
fostered the concept of the righteousness of American expansion
Frederick W. Taylor's management methods emphasized
the enforcement of work standards and cooperation
Which one of the following is an incorrect match?
Booker T. Washington: Niagara Movement
This organization led the fight for equal rights and education.
Between 1900 and 1920, women
increasingly found professional careers closed to them
In the first decade of the twentieth century, the American FEderation of Labor
remained devoted to the interests of skilled craftsmen
In terms of worker relations, Henry Ford
tried many innovations
The greater leisure time available to workers resulted from
a decrease in length of the work week.
A popular form of entertainment the drew from immigrant experience was
The Treaty of Washington in 1871
both B and D
During the Cleveland administration, which nation did the United States replace as the major power in Latin America?
Great Britain
Why did the United States increase its interest in Hawaii after the Civil War?
The economic and military value of the islands increased.
In their approached to the Cuban rebellion against Spain,
President Cleveland was generally neutral while President McKinley favored the insurgents.
By 1897, Spain
tried to avoid a confrontation with the United States
The Philippine-American War was
more costly than the Spanish-American War.
According to the Supreme Court,
Congress should determine the rights of U.S. possessions.
In which of the following territories did the native inhabitants receive United States citizenship in 1900?
Henry Ford showed that enormous revenues should come from
small unit profit on a large volume of sales
Using your own knowledge and the following graph, between 1898 and 1903, the American economy saw
a wave of mergers and consolidators
Which of the following was not characteristic of progressivism?
It sought radical changes in American life.
Women gained the right to vote through the
Nineteenth Amendment
The Mann-Elkins Act of 1910
balanced progressive and conservative demands
The 1910 election was significant because
the Republicans suffered tremendous losses in Congress
The Sixteenth Amendment
authorized an income tax
In 1912, Roosevelt's New Nationalism
demanded a stronger role for the president and government
Woodrow Wilson won the election of 1912 because
of the split in the Republican Party
The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914
prohibited interlocking directorates and unfair trade practices
The Adamson Act of 1916
imposed the eight-hour day on railroads
The president who invited Booker T. Washington to the White House was
Theodore Roosevelt
The Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
gave the United States control of the Panama Canal Zone
Taft's policy of "dollar diplomacy"
promoted American financial and business interests abroad
In his approach to foreign affairs, Wilson could be described as
a moralist
At the beginning of World War I, Americans
generally accepted neutrality
At the beginning of World War I, Great Britain
sought to restrict American trade with Germany
The 1915 German sinking of the -------- cost 128 American lives and enraged the American public.
The Zimmermann Telegram
proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico
In forming his delegation for the Paris Peace Conference, Wilson
wanted a group he could control
One of Wilson's major goals at Paris was
to found a League of Nations to enforce peace.
The -------- were fourteen Republican senators who steadfastly opposed every aspect of the League of Nations.
A leading advocate of the need for southern self-sufficiency was
William Gregg