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a measure of how hot (or cold) something is; specifically , a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object.

thermal expansion

an increase in the size of a substance in response to an increase in the temperature of the substance

absolute zero

the temperature at which molecular energy is at a minimum (0K on the Kelvin scale or -273.16C on the Celsius scale


the energy transferred between objects that are at different temperature

thermal energy

the kinetic energy that a substance's atoms

thermal conduction

the transfer of energy as heat though a material

thermal conductor

a material though which energy can be transferred as heat

thermal insulator

a material that reduces or prevents the transfer of heat


the transfer of thermal energy by the circulation of a liquid or gas

specific heat

the quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of homogeneous material 1K or 1C in a specified way given constant pressure and volume.


the transfer of energy as electromagnetic waves

states of matter

the physical forms of matter,which include solid,liquid,and gas

change of state

the change of a substance from one physical state to another


a substance that reduces the transfer of electricity,heat,or sound

heat engine

a machine that transform heat into mechanical energy,or work

thermal pollution

a temperature increase in a body of water that is caused by human activity and that has a harmful effect on water quality and the ability of that body of water to support life

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