**AP Euro Midterms

McWills :)
"price revolution"
steady move toward a nation centered government and capitalism resulting from inflation and a growing population in Europe from the fourteenth to the nineteenth century
organization of craftsmen that produced common articles for local use in the Middle Ages
business man that starts his own business; became prominent in European commercial lives; Medici biggest and most successful entrepreneurs of Italy, Fuggers of Germany
Catholic law that said lending out money with interest was illegal; was allowed in Judaism and the Protestant faiths, bringing about more economic success after the Reformation
commercial capitalism
economic system in which people invest in trade or goods to make a profit; seen during the Commercial Revolution with the rise of banks and insurance companies
an economic system that started to develop after the Renaissance and fall of feudal lords; belief that trade would bring profit; had strict government regulation; used to establish favorable balance of trade, develop agriculture and manufacture more products, and create foreign monopolies
favorable balance of trade
exporting finished goods and not raw materials and importing as little as possible; other countries would have to pay their debts in bullion, or gold and silver
internal tariffs
provincial and municipal tariffs that existed from previous times where business was city centered; mercantilists wanted to rid countries of these so that free trading was allowed between states
chartered trading companies
created by countries, mostly England, to find other peoples and place to trade with, obtain goods from, and bring back gold and silver
a class of small freeholders between the landed gentry and the rural poor that developed in England
Poor Law of 1601
forced people to work and relieve absolute destitution in an attempt to make the nation of England as productive as possible by making the impoverished work if possible as thought by the idea of mercantilism
French word for middle class; person living in a chartered town or borough and enjoying its liberties or a whole social class made of these people; Marx changed the meaning of this word later to mean the laboring poor that were likely to go hungry
Ursuline sisters
A group of Catholic women that were formed during the Catholic Anti reformation; put an emphasis on schooling and missionary work
whole middle class from big merchants down to modest levels; about half the Oxford class from 1560 1600
hereditary subjugation
the name given to serfdom in Germany; serfs could not leave the manor, marry, or learn a trade without the lord's express permission
a German nobleman or aristocrat; enjoyed an expanse of wealth and social superiority; owned land
the richer class in the eighteenth century; very distinct from the popular, or peasant, culture; had wealth, social position, and power; lived in comparative luxury to the peasants
an English artist in the 18th century who is most famous for his paintings of popular culture; especially the painting of Gin Street
several weeks preceding Lent; came from the Italian carne vale meaning "farewell to meat"; time for big eating and heavy drinking; general merrymaking and foolery
basically a quack that made business at the carnivals; would sell miracle medicine while cracking jokes from a stage; usually his tricks caught the uneducated common class
popular culture
Way of life for the mass of population in 17th and 18th centuries; included pastimes, beliefs, festivals, superstitions; much more poor than the elite culture
"the world turned upside down"
a common theme of festivals; everyone was done backwards; males dressed as females and vice versa; horses were ridden backwards; made for defying custom and ridiculing authority; may have been an expression of genuine resentment
local dialect; spoken by the popular culture; varied greatly within countries; the elite were educated, reducing the differences in patois
Succeeded the Puritans in England after the Stuart line was Restored; became a middle class and had a culture different from Gentry; did not have religion as a big portion of their culture
Domestic system
economic system in England that basically consisted of outsourcing to the country; merchants wanted to have more control than the guild system gave them; industry was therefore given to country workers, especially women who became spinners; really only happened in England, not other countries
economic system of most countries in Europe for quite some time; wanted to create favorable balance of trade by exporting as many goods as possible and importing as little as possible; favored international tariffs and growth of industry; also caused the search for colonies, as they could be monopolized with trade
East India Company
ship companies owned by countries in Eastern trade routes; generally giant fleets that competed with each other for dominance in the sea; tended to have almost their own government system to protect themselves; biggest fleets belonged to the Dutch, French, and English
plantation economy
a step toward Medieval feudalism; indigo, sugar, and tobacco plantations were created in the Western Indies; powered by slaves shipped from Africa, who were banded to their owners rather than the land
Italian word for the fifteenth century
Duke of Orleans
given the French government after Louis XIV, although he never had the title of king; admitted the aristocracy to a greater share of power; sold judgeships and titles to nobility to raise money; had to go through committees of angry noblemen
the Regency
word to describe the situation when the heir to the throne is too young to physically rule; how the Duke of Orleans got his power (LouisXIV's grandson Louis XV was only five)
a party in England; a minority; consisted of land owning nobility and wealthy merchants; generally controlled house of lords; did not want to agree to Utrecht
were in power in the House of Commons at the time of the Peace of Utrecht; tended to consist of more rural nobles and yeoman; suspicious of the aristocracy
supporters of James III, also known as the fake king; wanted to bring him back to the English throne thinking that he would give up Catholicism
"South Sea bubble"
due to the lack of a strong banking system in Wealthy France, this was the period of time that most of the economy was owned and run privately; dissolved in 1720
Cardinal Fleury
minister to Louis XV in his older age; the king was lazy, but he too did not have an eye for the future, creating weak French leadership
George I
Queen Anne was the last of the Stuarts; after her, George from Hanover was the closest relative to rule the throne; he was German, and stayed German during his rule; appointed German ministers and did not rule England with a firm hand, giving parliament a chance to gain power
Robert Walpole
kept out of the bubbles; supported the Bank of England; kept property taxes low; eventually became the first Prime Minister and created the cabinet system; created English credit
War of Jenkins Ear
Jenkin complained to Parliament about how the Spanish were treating the English; Parliament goes to war over it, despite the fact Warpole did not want to; claimed the Spaniards cut off his ear and kept it in a box with him
Frederick II
Ruler of Prussia; became a cynic after a hard childhood; kept the army strong; invaded Austria when Maria Theresa took the throne despite Pragmatic Sanction
Maria Theresa
an extremely loving mother; when the Prussians invaded Austria during her rule, she convinced her troops to rally by giving a passionate speech; a very practical ruler, kept the Habsburgs together during the War of Austrian Succession; lost Silesia, however, disappointing her
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
ended the War of Austrian Succession; signed between France and England and Maria Theresa had to comply; was more of an armistice than an actual solution to the war; Maria Theresa still wanted to regain Silesia and the French and English continued to have the same conflicts over the Habsburg line and certain territories
Peter III
Russian Tsar who pulled out of the Seven Year's War, saving his country from the wrath of Prussia
William Pitt
successful English General in the Seven Years' War; won Quebec in North America and several slave stations in Africa
Robert Clive
clerk for the British East India Company; was skilled in military and politics; was opposed by the people in Calcutta who supported the French; worked out of Bengal
French and Indian Wars
the Seven Years' War; French and American Natives fought against the British over colonies in North America
Battle of Plassey
Clive succeeds in gaining complete control of Bengal and puts a puppet leader in control, kicking out the native leader
Treaty of Paris of 1763
all French territory east of the Mississippi goes to Great Britain; British also get French slave posts in Africa; France keeps Pondicherry in India but cannot fortify it
Leonardo da Vinci
(1452-1519), Italian painter, scientist, and engineer. His paintings include The Last Supper (1498) and the Mona Lisa (1504-05). He devoted himself to a wide range of other subjects, from anatomy and biology to mechanics and hydraulics
Italian humanist; wrote Book of the Courtier
Medici Family
merchant family in Florence that became wealthy and ruled the citystate
Italian painter and architect; created The School of Athens
Last Supper
Da Vinci's paintings of Jesus Christ and his followers
the quality of being a man
Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet; painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
The Book of the Courtier
by Castiglione; outlined the proper way for men and women to act during the Renaissance
a leader of a troop of mercenaries in Italy
Lorenzo Valla
humanist critic; analyzed the Donation of Constantine and proved it was forged
The Prince
Machiavelli's handbook for the best way for a monarch to rule; wanted to unite Italy
The Father of Humanism; wrote many Italian sonnets
Pico della Mirandola
humanist that wrote the "Oration of the Dignity of Man" and stressed the importance of philosophy
Christian humanism
literature written to deepen the understanding of humanity
Meister Eckhart
German Roman Catholic theologian and mystic; well known for his work with several lay religions and small inquisitions
Imitation of Christ
Christian devotional book by Thomas a Kempis
German scientific worker who laid the foundations for the mathematical conception of the universe
Thomas a Kempis
German humanist that wrote Imitation of Christ
Praise of Folly
catalyzed Protestant reformation
Nicholas of Cusa
a Rhinelander whose mystical philosophy entered into the later development of mathematics and science
Sisters of the Common Life
a lay religious sisterhood founded by Gerard Groote that lived religiously without vows to the church
Handbook of a Christian Knight
written by Eramus of Rotterdam; showed how a man may take part in the affairs of the world while remaining a devout Christian
HRE scientist that believed the Earth rotated around the sun
Brothers of a Common Life
a lay religious brotherhood founded by Gerard Groote that lived religiously without vows to the church
Modern Devotion
schools with emphasis on Christian ideal of character and conduct, to instill such qualities as humility, tolerance, reverence, love of one's neighbor, and the conscientious performance of duty
Dr. Faustus
a man who was rumored to have sold his soul to the devil in exchange for knowledge
Gerard Groote
a lay preacher who founded the Brothers and Sisters of Common Life
Henry VII
first of the Tudor line; put an end to the civil turbulence of the Wars of the Roses; passed laws against "livery and maintenance"; created the star chamber
Ruling family in the New Monarchies of England
Spanish Inquisition
tried to rid Jews and Muslims from Spain
Louis XI
new monarch of France; built up a royal army, suppressed brigands, and subdued rebellious nobles; gained powers to raise taxation without parliamentary consent
"livery and maintenance"
the practice by which the great lords maintained private armies wearing their own livery or insignia
conquest of Granada
defeat that allowed Spain to be united by the Roman Catholic religion
Ferdinand and Isabella
rulers of Spain who united the country with their marriage; paid Christopher Columbus to discover the New World
Christians of Moorish background
Maximilian I
ruler of the Holy Roman Empire; divided it into administrative "circles" and an Imperial Chamber and Council; strategically married people
Star Chamber
court to deal with property disputes and infractions of the public peace; represented the authority of the king and his council and it operated without a jury
Christians of Jewish background
Charles V
thanks to Maximilian's marriages he inherited Austria, the Netherlands, Burgundy, Spain, Spanish America, parts of Italy and the Mediterranean, and was elected the Holy Roman Emperor
Concordant of Bologna
pope received money income from French ecclesiastics while the king appointed bishops and abbots
imperial knights
nobles of the Holy Roman Empire that served the emperor
War of the Roses
war in England between the Houses of York and Lancaster over the English throne
Grand Monarque
a nickname for Louis XIV; means great monarch in French
Sun King
another nickname for Louis XIV; implied, like the sun, he is the center of the universe
Charles II of Spain
sickly and senile; proof that inbreeding is not the way to go; could not produce any heirs; Louis XIV married his sister in hopes of taking over the throne
Franche Comte
Free County of Burgundy; a French-speaking region lying between ducal Burgundy and Switzerland; Louis XIV wanted this territory to expand France's borders, but it would mean dismemberment of the HRE
"universal monarchy"
a political situation in which one state might subordinate all others to its will; Louis XIV and France could have potentially been a universal monarchy if Louis XIV gained control of Spain and split Habsburg empire; Balance of Power is used against potential universal monarchs
Estates-General of the United Provinces
name of the Dutch government during its golden age; republican, with representatives from various Dutch provinces
a Calvinist religion tolerated in the Netherlands; favored a toning down of the doctrine of absolute and unconditional predestination; gained main support from the burghers; doctrines from a theologian of Leyden named Arminius, whose ideas were condemned at an international Calvinist synod in 1618 but were tolerated in 1632
Bank of Amsterdam
created by the Dutch; allowed checks; set up system for international currency conversions; loaned and insured people; largely the reason for Dutch success
House of Orange
usually elected as a type of leader of the whole United Provinces; prestigious family; had some military control but constantly competed with commercial class and burghers for power
William III
Born into the House of Orange; not what you would call a natural born leader; he hated flattery and socializing; extremely Calvinist; opposite of Louis XIV; married king of England's niece, Mary Stuart
English Navigation Act of 1651
aimed against the Dutch carrying trade; said goods imported into England and its colonies must be transported on English ships or on ships belonging to the exporting country; hurt Dutch/English relationships causing three wars between the two nations
English-Dutch wars
ran from 1652 to 1674 with interruptions; generally indecisive; started with Dutch anger toward English Navigation Act of 1651; 1664 England annexed New Amsterdam and renamed it New York
Treaty of Nimwegen
peace between Dutch and Louis XIV; Dutch allied with England, Denmark, and Hapsburgs, an alliance Louis XIV could not compete with
hereditary stadholders
in the Estates General of the United Provinces each representative was a stadholder; after fighting wars with Louis XIV, six Dutch provinces decided to elect the House of Orange prince as stadholder, and made stadholdership heredeitary
Hugo Grotius
a writer in the Dutch Golden Age; wrote Law of War and Peace, a pioneering treatise on international law
Baruch Spinoza
born into a family of refugee Portuguese Jews; quietly turned out works of philosophy, examining the nature of reality, human conduct, and church and state; made a living by grinding lenses
Christian Huyghens
the greatest Dutch scientist; worked mainly in physics and mathematics; improved telescope, made clocks move with pendulums, discovered the rings of Saturn, and launched the wave theory of light
wanted to clear England of all Catholic beliefs; a Calvinist group
Puritans in Scotland; Spread under John Knox; became official religion of Scotland
England's church created under Queen Elizabeth the first to unit the nation; included aspects of protestant Calvinist churches and the Catholic church; Puritans wanted to get rid of the Catholic aspects of the church
James VI of Scotland
James I of England; son of Mary Stuart; fan of absolutism; wrote The True Law of Free Monarchy, which to James meant a monarchy free from the control by Parliament, churchmen, or laws and customs of the past
The True Law of Free Monarchy
Book written by King James I of England/ King James VI of Scotland; talked of a monarch that could look after his subjects' welfare as he saw fit, stood above all parties, private interests, and pressure groups; talked about Divine right; extremely absolutist
"tonnage and poundage"
King's taxes on trades that could be levied with out calling Parliament into session
Archbishop Laud
head of Church during Charles I's reign; wanted to rid England of Puritans; sought religious conformity
prerogative courts
courts that consisted of the Star Chamber; not supported by parliament; did not have a jury; were set up to ensure religious conformity in England
ship money case
this refers to the period in which Charles I was forced to spend less money on national defense and the navy as there were a lack of funds
Long Parliament
lasted 20 years; managed to pass laws limiting the power of the king; forced king to summon Parliament every three years and could not dissolve Parliament without its consent
Solemn League and Covenant
allowed a Scottish Presbyterian system to be adopted in England
Puritan supporters in Parliament; fought under Oliver Cromwell in the English Civil Wars; consisted of country land owners and town based manufacturers
made up most of Cromwell's army; radical Puritans who believed that they were fighting the English Civil War for God
Pride's Purge
Got rid of all the Presbyterian members in Parliament, leaving only 50 to 60 members
the Rump
name for the Parliament after Cromwell's Pride's Purge got rid of all of the Presbyterian members
wanted a written document that stated the rights of Englishmen; Cromwell disagreed with them
wanted to create an almost communist Utopia; rejected the idea of property by the Bible, and instead set up communities on common lands; not liked by Cromwell
Fifth Monarchy Men
yet another Radical Group under Cromwell; under the Puritan revolution thought that the world was going to end soon
Instrument of Government
Cromwell's constitution that favored toleration in England (other than Catholicism); gave all Christians the right to practice their faith
Charles II
took the English throne after Cromwell died; weary of what happened to his father, he tried to be peaceful with the Parliament and work with them; had shady deals with Catholic France
Puritans that refused to accept the Anglican Church; Parliament then denied them certain rights
Treaty of Dover
secret Treaty between Charles II and Louis XIV to help in the predicted war against the Dutch; not supported by Englishmen who mostly hated Catholics (France was Catholic)
"declaration of indulgence"
Charles II choosing to not enforce laws against Dissenters; he, himself, was making deals with Catholics so he decided it would be best to say that he was religiously tolerant
Test Act
excluded all Catholics from public office; tried to pass a law excluding James, Charles' Catholic brother, from inheriting throne but did not succeed in doing so
Whigs and Tories
Parliament was divided into two groups. Whigs wanted a constitutional monarchy under a Protestant king; Tories were fine with the current king, but did not want Catholicism to take over England
"trial and seven bishops"
refused to support James II's policies, making themselves in support of Catholicism; they were pardoned by the Church of England, but James II ignored this and instead got into an argument with the Church
"Glorious Revolution"
called so because it was like a Revolution with out violence; William, Protestant ruler of Holland, was offered the crown of England as long as he agreed to the Declaration of Rights and the Bill of Rights
William and Mary
offered the English throne after James II because much of England's population feared a Catholic king would destroy the Anglican church and ruin England
Battle of the Boyne
William defeats James II army, sending James fleeing to France
Bill of Rights
a series of laws passed in 1689 that stated that the king could not levy taxes, make laws, or maintain an army with out consent of the Parliament; People were guaranteed basic civil liberties such as freedom of speech, right to petition, and protection against excessive bail or unusual punishment
United Kingdom of Great Britain
merged Ireland, Scotland, and England in 1707
Act of Settlement of 1701
said that no Catholic could take the English throne, negating the constant fear of subjects that a Catholic king would be in line to the throne
Toleration Act
passed in 1689; grated freedom of worship to Protestants who were dissenters from the Church of England; Catholics and Quakers excluded from this act
"penal code" for Ireland
England put in place for Catholic Ireland; weakened Catholics' power so that English citizens would not have to fear Catholics
French equivalent of a parliament; made local laws that they thought the King couldn't overstep
Civil War against Cardinal Mazarin from the nobility and the middle class in revolt to a more centralized government and higher taxes; caused riots in Paris causing Cardinal Mazarin and Louis XIV to flee, but Louis XIV eventually came back as the only goal was to overthrow Mazarin; convinced Louis XIV that an absolute monarch was necessary to avoid anarchy
Cardinal Mazarin
Prime Minister for Louis XIV; tried to continue Richelieu's strategies for centralizing power but lacked his shrewdness; ended up creating a Fronde against him
Bishop Bossuet
one of Louis' advisers; talked about Divine Right of Kings
Divine Right of Kings
said that the king was chosen by God to rule, and only had authority over the king, not parliament or anyone else
Louis' expensive palace that held courts and a lot of fountains; he required nobles to live there to lessen their power and keep an eye on them
royal officials that took the place of Nobles in their duties, including collecting tax, recruiting soldiers, and enforcing Louis XIV's laws
councils of state
similar to a Parliamentary group; had representation from every class and province; not used by Louis XIV
tax farmers
responsible for collecting taxes from private businesses; often corrupt, they kept some of what they collected, causing financial issues for the country
Louis XIV's financial advisor; implemented mercantilism in France; promoted good farming method, canals and roads, cloth industries, and created free trading zones
Commercial Code
a new trading system implemented by Colbert that regulated trade rather have goods be based off of tradition
Five Great Farms
large free trade areas created by Colbert; however, there were heavy tariffs to promote French goods
French East India Company
another of Colbert's plans to build French wealth; traded with the Indies and Asia; similar to the Dutch East India Company
revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Louis XIV decided France would be under one religion; to crack down on the Huguenots he revoked this document that allowed them to be tolerated and claimed it was never meant to be permanent
War of Devolution
Louis XIV invades Spanish Netherlands as the unpaid dowry of his wife; France vs Spain, Dutch Republic, England, and Sweden; solved with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
"Dutch War"
Louis XIV invades the southern Netherlands, making enemies with William III of Orange; William responds with alliances with the Habsburgs, Brandenburg, and Denmark
Treaty of Nimwegen
ended the Dutch war; Louis XIV gave up on winning the Netherlands, but did gain the Franch Comte from Spain and expanded France's borders
chambers de reunion
unfortunately I could not find this word in the book or online
War of the League of Augsburg
HRE, Spain, Sweden, and Dutch Republic against France; Louis XIV was no match for this alliance and made the Peace of Ryswick
Peace of Ryswick
didn't actually hand over land or make negotiations but it did end the War of the League of Augsburg
Charles II of Spain
when he died, he said the throne would go to Philip V, Louis XIV's grandson; this would give France enough power to become a universal monarch
"The Pyrenees exist no longer"
the message sent to Versailles when Louis XIV accepted Charles II will; meant that the border between France and Spain no longer existed
William III
Dutch Protestant Leader from the House of Orange; fought against Louis XIV
John Churchill
commander for the Grand Alliance, which included England, Holland and the Austrian emperor, supported by Brandenburg and eventually by Portugal and Savoy
Duke of Marlborough
status of John Churchill, the commander for the Grand Alliance; came from England
Philip V of Spain
Louis XIV's grandson; upon taking the throne, he had to accept never taking the French throne
Grand Alliance of 1701
included England, Holland, the Austrian emperor, supported by Brandenburg and eventually by Portugal and Savoy; commanded by John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough
Prince Eugene of Savoy
led the Austrians against the Grand Alliance
Treaties of Utrecht and Rastadt
end the War of the Spanish Succession; provides Philip V will be king of Spain, Austria gets the Spanish Netherlands, England gets the Island of Gibrlater, and Hanoverian kings get recognized by France
allowed Great Britain the right to slave trade to the Spanish colonies, in addition to one single boatload of non human goods (France wanted this really badly but didn't get it)
"Dutch Barrier"
right given to the Dutch that allowed to construct a string of forts in Belgium on the side toward France; never again did the Dutch play a primary role in international affairs
Austrian and Spanish Habsburgs
after Charles V the dynasty split with brother Ferdinand II taking the HRE and Austria and son Philip II taking Spain and parts of everything else
siglo de oro
1550-1650; Spain under Philip II found an expanse of gold in South America
Philip II's building located thirty miles from Madrid in Castile; created for religion and government; built for St. Laurence
Council of Troubles
created by the Duke of Alva to fight all Catholic dissenters; nicknamed Council of Blood
Duke of Norfolk
led a group of Catholics in northern England against queen Elizabeth I, a heretic in the eyes of the Catholic church
Mosriscos, converted Muslims, rose up against Philip II; lost a battle at Lepanto but recovered and built a new fleet
William the Silent
also called William of Orange; Was Philip II's lieutenant in the County of Holland; Philip II sent Alva to remove his estate; he responded by saying he had sovereign power and ordering ship captains to make war at sea; raided the small port towns of the Netherlands and France; Spanish thickened their Inquisition
Prince of Parma
successor of governor general of the Netherlands Don Juan; rallied the seventeen southern provinces of the Netherlands on his side by promising that the historic liberties of the provinces would be respected
Union of Utrecht
formed in response to the uniting of the seventeen southern provinces of Netherlands by Prince of Parma; the seven northern provinces, led by Holland and Zeeland; declared independence from the King of Spain; called themselves the United Provinces of the Netherlands; became Dutch Republic/Holland
Sir Francis Drake
had circumnavigated the globe for England; burned the Catholic ships that wanted to join the Spanish Armada after Mary Stuart's execution
armada catolica
the great Armada; reading early in 1588;consisted of 130 ships, weighing 58000 tons, carrying 30000 men and 2400 pieces of artillery; plan was to sail to the Netherlands and assist Parma's army to the English coast; destroyed by English fleet of smaller and lighter ships
"boy kings"
when in 1559 the French Valois King Henry II was killed accidentally in a jousting accident, his heirs were three young boys, the eldest only 15; royal sons: Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III
French Calvinists; a minority but not a small group; Francis I and Henry II opposed the spread of the religion and persecuted Huguenots; took to arms against the monarchy
Catherine de Medici
Henry II's wife; attempted to run the country for her young king sons;
Admiral de Coligny
a leader of the Huguenots; killed by Catherine de Medici on the massacre on St. Bartholomew's Day
"three Henry's"
Henry III: reigning king of France; Henry of Guise: Catholic party chief who was trying to kill Henry III; Henry of Navarre: Huguenot chieftain; First two were assassinated; Third took the throne as Henry IV
another group that developed in France; mainly among Catholics but including more moderate Protestants; "politicals"; Decided that religion wasn't important enough for all this war and wanted civil order
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Catherine de' Medici finally decided to rid herself of the heads of the Huguenot party in a single blow; thousands of Huguenots were dragged from their beds after midnight and unceremoniously murdered, including Coligny; Henry of Navarre ( ruler Henry IV aka the third Henry) escaped by changing his religion
Jean Bodin
(1530-1596); first thinker to develop the modern theory of sovereignty; a politique; held that in every society there must be one power strong enough to give law to all others, with their consent if possible, with their consent if necessary
Edict of Nantes
Henry IV decided to accept Catholicism which angered his Huguenot followers; granted every noble the right to hold Protestant services in his own household; allowed Protestant churches were Protestantism was dominant, but not in Catholic Episcopal towns and in a zone surrounding and including Paris; guaranteed Protestants the same rights as Catholics; created "mixed chambers" in law courts; allowed Protestants their own defense
French regional court dominated by hereditary nobility
Estates General
an assembly of representatives from all three social classes in France; never used by Henry IV and dismissed by Marie de' Medici because their conflicting interests never got anything done
Peace of Alais
amended the Edict of Nantes; made by Richelieu; Protestants kept their religion but didn't get to share Catholic's religious power; Huguenots lost their fortified cities, their Protestant armies and all their military and territorial rights
Holy Roman Empire
extended from France on the west to Poland and Hungary on the East; included a diverse population of peoples but was mostly made up of Germans; split almost evenly with religion, giving the country no religious base; lost most of it's power during the Thirty Years' War
Peace of Augsburg
provided that each state in HRE could prescribe the religion of its subjects
Ecclesiastical Reservation
part of the Peace of Augsburg that stated any Catholic that turned Lutheran should leave his lands and possessions behind and move rather than convert the state
Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, king of Bohemians; sent troops to Bohemia after they threw two emissaries out the window; started the first phase of the war
Ferdinand II
Matthias's successor as Holy Roman Emperor; managed to overwhelm Bohemians at the battle of the White Mountain in 1620 with help from the pope, Spanish troops and Catholic Bavaria; took away half the noble lands of Bohemia and gave them to the Catholic church
Frederick V
Calvinist Elector Palatine; replaced Matthias as king of Bohemia during the first phase of the Thirty Year's War; fled in the Battle of White Mountain earning the mocking title "winter king"; his ancestral lands were overrun by the Spanish
Protestant Union
headed by Frederick V; brought aid to Bohemia; dissolved in 1621; alliance of Lutheran states against Catholic and Calvinist states
"defenestration of Prague"
The Bohemians/Czechs feared the loss of their Protestant liberties when two emissaries from the HRE visited them so they threw the two out the window, sparking a war
Battle of the White Mountain
1620; during the first phase of the Thirty Year's War; Ferdinand II managed to overwhelm the Bohemians, causing Frederick V to flee
Edict of Restitution
Holy Roman Emperor created this in 1629; said that ever church territory secularized since 1552 was now part of the Catholic church; caused protestants to freak out
commissioned by Emperor Ferdinand against Richelieu; gathered professional soldiers from all nationalities that made money from pillaging; had very few morals and was cruel; defeated the king of Denmark, reached Baltic coast, invaded Danish peninsula
Gustavus Adolphus
king of Sweden; ruler of great ability; conciliated all parties in Sweden and had extended Swedish holdings on the east shore of the Baltic; created the most modern army of the time noted for its firm discipline, high courage, and mobile cannon; hated Catholics and thought that he could be a new Holy Roman Emperor
Adolphus's chancellor who took over after Adolphus was killed
Peace of Westphalia
ended the religious wars; talks began in 1644 in the two towns of Munster and Osnabruck; German states wanted peace, religious settlement and reform of the Holy Roman Empire; each state was represented by its own Prince; armies were dismantled except for security; Calvinism added to the peace of Augsburg and Peace made permanent
"German liberties"
German princes' right to control all aspects of law within their principalities, naturally reducing the power of the Holy Roman Emperor as provided by the Treaty of Westphalia
Old Regime
the aristocratic society of France under a monarch that consisted of three firm classes that were not allowed much fluidity; the lowest class had the worst living conditions by far
an "order" of society
fees a manor lord collected on the village mill, bakery, or wine press which he usually had a monopoly over
"eminent property"
lesser landowners within the manor "owned" their land in that they could freely buy, sell, lease, and inherit or bequeath it; but they owed to the owner of the manor certain annual rents as well as transfer fees that were payable when the land changed owners
feudal reaction
manorial lords, faced with rising living costs because of the general material progress, collected dues more rigorously or revived old ones to raise more money for themselves
Jaques Necker
a Swiss banker who was director of the finances in 1777 for Louis XVI; taxed the privileged classes and was dismissed
Necker's successor; created a program that would give a general tax on all landowners, a lightening of indirect taxes like tariffs, and a confiscation of properties; may have assuaged the revolution, but he was dismissed like the previous financial advisors
Abbe Sieyes
wrote What Is the Third Estate?; declared that the nobility was useless and could be abolished without loss, and that all of society needed the Third Estate; allowed Rousseau's Social Contract to enter the revolution
Marquis de Lafayette
"the hero of two worlds"; appointed by the Assembly to command the guard of Paris; created the Red, White, and Blue flag of France
Olympe de Gouges
published The Rights of Woman; applied the Rights of Man to women
Mary Wollstonecraft
wrote a Vindication of the Rights of Woman in 1792; similar to Olympe de Gouges' pamphlet; thought women should have greater opportunities in education
only leader of the Revolution that argued for legal equality of the sexes; wanted to get rid of the feminine corruptions of the Old Regime
most important tax in France; only paid by the peasants
Assembly of Notables
convened by Calonne in 1787 in hopes of winning the favor of the nobles of his new economic plan; but the notables wanted concessions in return
What Is the Third Estate?
pamphlet written by Abbe Sieyes that declared that the nobility was useless and that France depended upon the Third Estate
National Assembly
when the Third Estate was locked out of its meeting room and forced to convene at a tennis court, they changed their name to this and demanded reforms; the weak King allowed it to stay in being
Tennis Court Oath
June 20, 1789; said that National Assembly was not in existence and would not disband until they had made a constitution and forced it upon the King
storming of the Bastille
an angry mob attacked the stronghold prison that held needed weapons; they then tore the building apart brick by brick; many of the guards were brutally killed; showed that the peasant revolution was a force to be reckoned with
National Guard
soldiers in Paris, France that would be commanded by the talented Marquis de Lafayette
night of August 4th
the Old Regime was ended along with feudalism being abolished; a few nobles, on a night when many people were absent, stood up and gave up their privileges
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
written by Thomas Paine; outlined rights of every human being, similar to our Bill of Rights
A Vindication of Women
written by Mary Wollstonecraft; thought women should have greater opportunities in education
Le Chapelier law
passed by the National Assembly; banned guilds and trade unions
Society of Friends of the Constitution; met in an old Jacobin monastery in Paris; mostly made up of bourgeoisie; wanted to continue pushing the revolution
negotiable instruments regarded as bonds in large denominations that could be used to buy church land
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
parish priests and bishops were elected; Protestants, Jews, and agnostics could take part in the elections; archbishoprics were abolished; somewhat alienated Catholics
refractory clergy
clandestine church maintained by voluntary offerings or smuggled funds; clergy was counterrevolutionary; favored by Good Catholics, like the king
Great Fear of 1789
the impoverished were afraid of bandits stealing their food; attacked their lords' manors and caused chaos
preached the necessity of war, calling it a struggle against French barabarism and violence; wrote Reflections
Leopold of Austria
Habsburg emperor, Marie Antoinette's brother; said he would attack France because of the threats against the monarchs; France returned by starting a war with Prussia and Austria
Reflections on the Revolution in France
written by Edmund Burk; said revolution would lead to anarchy and dictatorship; preached the necessity of war
Declaration of Pillnitz
said Leopold would take military steps to restore order in France if other European powers joined him
faction of Jacobins; the party of international revolution; wanted to fight with neighboring countries so they could have revolutions and overthrow their own government
Constitutional Convention; took powers of Legislative Assembly; forced abrogation of the constitution and the election by universal male suffrage; was to prepare a more democratic constitution
Brunswick Manifesto
proclamation that sent Prussian and Austrian armies to attack Paris, France
Paris Commune
revolutionary municipal government in Paris
member of the National Assembly; led the Mountains; a Jacobin; led the Committee of Public Safety; began the Reign of Terror; incorruptible that was corrupted
a French revolutionary who opposed the Girondists and led to their fall in 1793
Robespierre's friend; led the mountains with him and died on the guillotine with him
National Convention
yet another government of France; this one went crazy in its ideals, losing them altogether, and causing the deaths of thousands on the Guillotine
"without knee breeches"; wore long pants; mob of peasants that wanted the Revolution to move forward and therefore constantly maintained power throughout the entire revolution
levee en masse
called all able bodied men to rally the three colors of the French flag
Committee on Public Safety
created by Robespierre; had no patiences with unauthorized revolutionary violence; brought about the terror and associated with killing thousands of people via the guillotine
The Mountain men; run by Robespierre and Danton; Jacobins in the National Convention
the Mountain
the group of Montagnards
Gracchus Babeuf
1796 organized the Conspiracy of Equals; wanted to overthrow the Directory and replace it with a dictatorial government abolished private property and equality decreed; precursor to communism
Napoleon Bonaparte
born in 1769 to minor nobility; studied in French military schools and had been commissioned in the Bourbon army; rose ranks during the Terrror; developed his own foreign policy where he concurred everything possible
(1814-24) tried to issue a Constitutional Charter which accepted many revolutionary changes and guaranteed civil liberties
the Directory
group of five men that served as the executive branch between the Committee and the Convention; overthrown by Napoleon
Conspiracy of Equals
society started by Babeuf; a precursor to communism
the coup of Fructidor
resolved issues about returning a king; used against Louis XVIII in the name of the Revolution
Cisalpine Republic
French Republic in Northern Italy that lasted from 1797 to 1802