psychology exam - emmaus high school

emmaus high school psychology exam review terminology
STUDY
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learning/behavioral approach
importance of environmental influence on behavior and experience on behavior
humanistic approach
importance of human conciousness, self awareness, and capacity to make choices
psychoanalysis
human behavior is determined by unconcious motives
cognitive approach
importance of private thought processes and feelings
neurobiological approach
emphasizes physical causes of behavior (a physical problem can explain the behavior, ex: bipolar disorder)
consciousness
a psychological construct
preconscious
information you can easily pull back to conscious thought
unconscious
information that is stored and unavailable to awareness under most circumstances; still impacts behavior
REM sleep
sleep that relieves the body of stress and revives the body's energy
NREM sleep
sleep that occurs in other stages of sleep cycle
night terror
occurs in NREM, severe terror and discomfort during sleep
every day activities
what are most dreams about?
insomnia
inability to stay asleep or fall asleep
naracolepsy
a very rare condition when you fall asleep suddenly and randomly
sleep apnea
interruptions in breathing that occur during sleep
hypnosis
an altered state of consciousness, when people act as though they are in a trance
conditioning
learning through some type of stimulus
classical conditioning
involuntary learning through pairs of stimuli
neutral stimulus
a stimulus that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus that then becomes a conditioned stimulus
unconditioned response
an automatic response to a stimulus
conditioned response
a learned response to a stimulus that was previously neutral
unconditioned stimulus
this causes an automatic response that is not learned
conditioned stimulus
this causes a learned response that is not automatic
Pavlov's Experiment
dog's salivate when they see food, then the salivate when they hear the door bell
operant conditioning
learning through consequences
simulus generalization
when the same response occurs to similar stimuli
Little Albert
a child conditioned to be afraid of little white fluffy things
extinction
the disappearance of a conditioned response
discrimination
a different response to different stimuli
punishment
an unwanted event that decreases the frequency of the behavior that it follows when applied
positive reinforcement
this increases the frequency of the behavior that it follows when applied
negative reinforcement
this decreases the frequency of the behavior that it follows when applied
chaining/shaping
linking behaviors together to teach a complex behavior
variable ratio
when reinforcement is given after a variable number of correct responses
fixed ratio
when reinforcement is given after a fixed number of correct responses
variable interval
when there is a variable amount of time between reinforcements
fixed interval
when there is a fixed amount of time between reinforcements
recall
bringing information back to the working mind
recognition
identifying things that have been encountered before
retrieval
locating stored information and returning it to concious thought
short term memory
can store up to seven ideas/thoughts for a short period of time, then they are lost
long term memory
final stage of memory, holds information you remember from childhood or school, use mechanical repitition or elaborate rehearsal to remember things
flashbulb memory
extremely detailed memory scenes
intelligence
the ability to learn from experiences and to think rationally
90-110
average IQ
IQ formula
Mental Age / Chronological Age x 100
Stanford-Binet Intellegence Test
the first standardized intellegence test, the "classic" IQ test
Wechsler Scales
a revised, more modernly used intellegence test that tests verbal and nonverbal abilities
mild retardation
IQ range 50-70, can lead a generally normal life
moderate retardation
IQ range 35-49, need a sheltered life
severe retardation
IQ range 20-34, need constant supervision
profound retardation
IQ range 20-below, barely able to communicate or function
cognitive development
the study of the development of people's thought processes
object perminance
the knowlege that something continues to exist even when it cant be touched or seen
sensorimotor stage
when children learn to coordinate sensation and perception with motor activity
preoperational stage
when children begin to use words and symbols to represent objects
concrete operational stage
when children begin to show signs of adult thinking
formal operational stage
when cognitive maturity has been acheived, can think abstractly, learn mathematics easier in this stage
trust vs mistrust
Erik Erikson's theory that you form your ability to trust when you are an infant
adolescent identity crisis
a turning point in a persons development when you examine your values and beliefs
preconventional level
when judgements are based on avoiding punishment and the consequences of behavior
conventional level
when acts are made based on conformity with society and personal veiws of right vs wrong
postconventional level
when moral judgements reflect personal values and beliefs, few ever reach this level
motivation
something that moves a person to behave in ways designated to accomplish a specific goal
hierarchy of needs
pysiological>safety>belonging>esteem>self-actualization
Abraham Maslow's belief that people rise naturally through the levels as long as they do not enounter obsticles
facial expressions
these are believed to be inborn, put in the collective unconcious, used to express ourselves
common-sense theory
the theory that emotions trigger behaviors
cannon-bard theory
the theory that behaviors and emotions happen at the same time
James-Lange theory
the theory that behaviors trigger emotions
opponent-process theory
multiple emotions occur and conflict at the same time
personality
patterns of feelings, motives, and behavior that set people apart from one another
ID
the basic drives you feel that follow the pleasure principle
EGO
the self, the reason and good sense that follow the reality principle
SUPEREGO
the moral sense, the values and standards of life that follow the moral principle
cognitive consistancy
acting in accord with your beliefs or personal veiws
defense mechanisms
methods the ego uses to avoid recognizing ideas/emotions that cuase anxiety, they operate unconsciously
repression
a defense mechanism when you push anxiety causing ideas into your unconscious
denial
a defense mechanism when you refuse to accept reality because it is too painful
regression
a defense mechanism when you act younger than what you really are
displacement
a defense mechanism when you take out your anger or frustration on the wrong people
projection
a defense mechanism when you see your flaws in someone else
sublimation
a defense mechanism when you turn something critical or bad into something positive (ex. you're angry so you go to the gym)
frustration
being blocked from obtaining a goal causes this
conflict
being pulled in two or more directions
anxiety
nervousness, anxiousness, uneasiness
projective tests
tests that attempt to reveal underlying beliefs, thoughts, or motives (ex. roreschack inkblot test)
stress
arousal of one's body and mind in response to demands made upon them
eustress
positive stress that leads to motivation
causes of stress
frustration, conflict, anxiety, daily hassles, life changes
type A
personality that is always on the go, highly driven, competitive, and impatient
type B
personality that is more relaxed, less driven, earn less money, and have less worries
diagnosis criteria
untypical behavior
maladaptivity
emotional discomfort
socially unacceptable behavior
panic attacks
an anxiety disorder when you have a short period of intense fear and discomfort
phobic disorder
an anxiety disorder that is a persistant or excessive irrational fear of something
desensitization
a common treatment for phobias where you have to face up to your fears
OCD
an anxiety disorder when you have excessive obsessions and compulsions
conversion disorder
a somatoform disorder when you have bodily symptoms without any explainable physical cause
hypochondriasis
an unrealistic preoccupation with thoughts that you have a serious disease
dissociative amnesia
serious loss of memory following a traumatic event
dissociative fuguge
when amnesia occurs and a new life is started with no regards to the old one following a traumatic event
dissociative identity disorder
existance of two or more personalities within a single individual
depression
a mood disorder that is the most common psychological issue in the world, experience severe hopelessness and sadness
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder that is caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain, experience highs and lows of personality
mania
extreme excitement characterized by hyperactivity and chaotic behavior
catatonic schizophrenia
distrubance of movement, may hold a fixed position for hours, may exibit waxy flexibility
paranoid schizophrenia
delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations all relating to a single theme or thoughts of grandeur
undifferentiated schizophrenia
random but obvious loss of contact with reality with symptoms of hallucinations and delusions
anitsocial personality disorder
when someone does not feel guilt or remorse, tend to break the law and experience consiquences with no regard to social norm
Sigmund Freud
psychologist who was the founder of psychoanalysis, emphasizes the importance of the unconscious mind and motives, theorized the ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO
John Watson
psychologist who was the founder of behaviorism, constructed the "Little Albert" experiment
Albert Bandura
psychologist who stressed the importance of learning by observation
Carl Rogers
psychologist who was humanistic, developed the "Self Theory" and asserts that people need consistancy in life
Abraham Maslow
psychologist who was humanistic, theorized the "Heirarchy of Needs" and the need to reach one's full potential
Alfred Binet
psychologist who developed the first modern intellegence test
Ivan Pavlov
psychologist who conducted the dog salivating experiment and discovered classical conditioning
Erik Erikson
psychologist who theorized the "Stages of Development"
Jean Piaget
psychologist who theorized the "Stages of Cognitive Development"
Lawrence Kohlberg
psychologist who theorized the "Theory of Moral Development"
B.F. Skinner
psychologist who was a behaviorist, believed in the concept of reinforcement
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