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Chapter 8 Political Geography
Terms in this set (47)
Balance of power
Distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong.
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa.
Many boundaries are natural boundaries, formed by rivers, mountains, etc. There are also political boundaries. These are often formed through war and compromise in treaties and agreements. In countries often form cultural boundaries that used to belong to a groups cultural homeland. However, countries in Africa, the Middle East and elsewhere aren't arranged by culture but politics, and Western countries turned their former colonies into nations without respect for culture.
A city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside.
Governmental divisions that divide citizens.
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
A settlement ruled by another country.
A state that posses a roughly circular shape from which the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions.
The transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states.
A state whose territory is long and narrow in shape.
Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.
The zone, stretching 200 nautical miles from the coast, over which a country has control.
A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory. Example: the Philippines
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments.
Centralized government system, generally has a central capital as the focus of power.
Unsettled territory west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Areas of seas considered beyond territorial waters.
Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically. To extend power into foreign countries.
The policy of a state wishing to incorporate within itself territory inhabited by people who have ethnic or linguistic links with the country but that lies within a neighboring state. (A state has control over those of that state's nationality but who live in a different state).
A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
A state or territory that is small in both size and population.
The process of creating a government elected by the people. (Making a state a Democracy).
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
A state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state.
A state that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension, leading away from the main territory.
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
A body of people living in a defined territory who have a government with the power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority. (A country).
Tightly knit group of individuals sharing a common language, ethnicity, religion, and other cultural attributes. (The Kurds).
A nation without a state. (Kurds, Palestinians, ...).
The waters near a state's shores generally treated as part of national territory. The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea provides for a 12-nautical mile territorial sea (exclusive national jurisdiction over shipping and navigation) and a 200-nautical mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ) covering exclusive fishing and mineral rights (but allowing for free navigation by all).
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials.
Term applied to associations created by three or more states for their mutual benefit and achievement of shared objectives. (NAFTA, NATO, ...)
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
Private, voluntary organizations whose members are individuals or associations that come together for a common purpose (Red Cross, Green Peace, Amnesty).
Explain the concept of "state" by:
-Identifying necessary qualifications and characteristics
-Listing examples of states in various regions
A state is a POLITICALLY ORGANIZED territory. It is administered by a sovereign government. It is recognized by a significant portion of the inter national community as a state. It must also contain: a permanent resident population, and an organized economy. A state is what many people call a country. So any example of a country is a state. Before the Constitution was ratified the "United STATES of America" was just a bunch of countries under the rule of a supra nation. We still call them states today because they each have their own government. A quasi-state is a country that meets all of the requirements of a state but lacks almost all the domestic attributes of a functioning modern state.
Describe the problems of multinational states (Russia) and stateless nations (the Kurds).
Multinational states: Challenges in coexisting nationalities. Ex: Russia, Nigeria, USA, ...
Stateless nations: War or violence over territory. Ex: The kurds, Palestinians, ...
List advantages and disadvantages of different shapes of states and provide examples.
Compact: Equal power throughout the state because distance around the state is about the same. Most of the time the state would be landlocked so at the economy may be poor due to lack of sea trading. (+Poland) (-Zimbabwe)
Elongated: Normally has lots of connection to waterways but lacks in state communication because of the great distance along the country.
Prorupted: Extra extension from "main part" of the state can be used as an international border for other countries. Although this may cause uneven distribution of power if one half of the country has more territory than another. (+Austria) (-Afghanistan)
Perforated: The states most likely have a good alliance although the state surrounded obviously has no access to water (ocean/sea). (+Italy/Vatican city) (-South Africa/Lesotho)
Discuss the concepts of imperialism, colonialism, and illustrate some of their consequences on the contemporary political map.
Imperialism: A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically. To extend power into foreign countries. This could cause, on the contemporary political map, the extension or destruction of border lines as the dominating state moves to take over the weaker one. The greater state expands.
Colonialism: Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory. This could cause, on the contemporary political map, the fragmentation of a state as it may begin to create borders away from its original state.
Explain the role of the following in the internal structure of states:
-Federal or unitary structure
-irredentism, separatism, autonomy, and self-determination
Civil divisions: In the US there are very specific borders on how we divide the citizens. Household->Neighborhood->City->State.
Federal or unitary structure: If the Unitary/Federal power in the state is the most dominant then the idea of internal borders may not exist because the need for smaller forms of government may not be needed.
Irredentism: The state's boundaries may expand to incorporate those whose nationalities lie with the state but they live in another.
Separatism: This may cause the state to split into two or more states due to one part wanting to become independent from the other.
Autonomy: Smaller less significant borders may be created due to rise in power of smaller forces of political power within the community.
Self-Determination: States within a state may begin to defect and potentially create their own borders within the original state.
Define and provide examples of "forward" capitals.
"forward" capitals are capitals of a state that have been relocated in their country to allow a political or economical advantage. Some examples could be:
-Washington D.C: Created after the Constitution splitting the North from the South allowing the idea of equal power between both sides.
-Abuja, Nigeria: Moved to the center of the country to allow easier flow of trade through the country. Also to equalize power.
Summarize the history of the UN and identify issues of current importance regarding it.
The UN system was based on five active principal organizations: UN General Assembly, UN Security council, UN Economic and Social council, UN Secretariat, and the International Court of Justice. Today there are 192 states within the UN. Some states that aren't part of the UN include: Taiwan, Vatican City, Western Sahara, Palestinian territories, and Tibet. Some UN organizations may include:
-UNPD: UN Development Programme
-UNIFFM: UN Development Fund For Women
-UNV: UN Volunteers
-UNEP: UN Environment Programme
-UNFPA: UN Fund for Population Activities
-UNHCR: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
-UN-HABITAT:UN Human Settlements Programme
-UNICEF: UN Children's Fund
Political movement of part of a political unit towards independence.
Self-government, political control.
The ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will.
When a capital city is moved to a different location for different economic and strategic reasons. Example: Pakistan moved its capital to Islamabad to orient the nation toward its historic focus in the interior and towards the north. Steam Engine- a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. It raises steam, which turns into a turbine. Iron production was one of the first industries to benefit from the steam engine. It provided a way to keep the ovens heated, constantly, for a long time.
States that have legal sovereignty and international recognition but lack almost all the domestic attributes of a functioning modern state.
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