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WH Semester Test 11-12

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Where did homo sapiens emerge?
east Africa
How many years ago did homo sapiens emerge?
between 100,000 and 400,000 years ago
Before Christ (period after Jesus was born)
B.C.
Anno Domini (year of the lord, period after Jesus was born)
A.D.
B.C.E.
Before Common Era/Common Era (non christian dating system)
What are the theories of the development of the earth?
Religious, Scientific, Combination
Who invented the Theory of Evolution?
Charles Darwin
When do scientists believe started on Earth?
4.4-3.8 billion years ago
What civilization controlled trade overland between Egypt and Mesopotamia?
Aramaeans
What civilization was seafaring traders, that contributed; timer, purple dye, and an alphabet?
Phoenicians
What civilization developed a money system (coins) to replace barter?
Lydians
What is Purple Dye (Royal Purple) also called/made of?
murex/shellfish
What age were tools simple, made of stone, cave art developed, dead were first buried, had hunter-gatherers, fire was first used, and medicine was first practiced?
Paleolithic Age
What age were animals first domesticated, boats and canoes were first developed, and pottery was first used?
Mesolithic Age
What age specialization of labor occurred, a simple form of government was created, agriculture and herding developed, and new technologies such as; the loom, wheel and plow, and axle?
Neolithic Age
What are some examples of Pre-Stone age man characteristics?
nomads, didn't stand fully erect, scavengers, gatherers, used simple tool (bone, wood), all forms in Africa...etc...
When did the Stone Age begin and end?
2 Million to 5000 B.C.
What are the three stone ages(in order)?
Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic
What means "Old Stone?"
Paleolithic
What does Mesolithic mean?
"Middle Stone"
Neolithic means what?
"New Stone"
What are two examples of occurrences in the Paleolithic Age?
Hominids, Ice Age, Climate changes, 2.7 to 2.5 million years ago, later forms of man.
What form of man is known as "Handy Man"
Homo Habilis
Who was the first form of man to make stone tools?
Homo Habilis
What are some characteristics of Hunter Gatherer society?
All hominids, Gathered food, Hunted and scavenged for food, nomadic, lived in clans.
What form of man lived 1.8 million to 300,000?
Homo Erectus
What form of man was first to use fire?
Homo Erectus
Name the Homo Erectus forms.
Java man, Peking man, Turkana boy.
What species do we belong?
Homo Sapiens
When did Homo Sapiens emerge?
between 100,000 and 400,000 years ago.
Where did Homo Sapiens first arrive?
Africa
When did Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis emerge?
230,000 to 30,000 years ago
Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis were the first to...?
Live in cold climates, Have religious beliefs, bury the dead, and practice basic medicine(found in nature.)
Homo Sapiens Sapiens are known as?
Thinking Man
What were some Cro-Magnon firsts?
Lascaux Cave paintings, religious practices,music, and advanced tools.
This period lasted from 12,000 to 8,000 B.C.
Mesolithic Period
What developments occurred during the Mesolithic Period?
better stone tools, pottery, boats, and domestication of animals.
This period lasted from 8000 to 5000 B.C.
Neolithic Period
What happened during the Neolithic Revolution?
agriculture and herding developed
How did the Bronze Age begin?
When tools were made with bronze.
Bronze is a mixture of what?
copper and tin
Where is Stonehenge located?
England
This archaeological site was built during the Neolithic and completed during the Stone Age, name the site.
Stonehenge
This is an example of a Neolithic settlement in Anatolia (Turkey.)
Catalhoyuk
Where did the first early civilizations begin?
River valleys
What were some of the River Valley civilizations?
Nile, Indus, Hwang He or yellow, and Tigris and Euphrates
Rulers used what to justify their rule?
religion
Why was writing developed?
To keep track of religious offerings.
What is the earliest form of written language?
Pictograph
Where did the first civilizations begin?
fertile crescent
Define agriculture.
raising crops for food.
This document said "an eye for an eye."
The Code of Hammurabi
A line of kings, made great advances over time is what?
Xia
Between 1750 B.C. and 1500 B.C. invaders swept into Huang He river valley
Shang
What is a bureaucracy?
a government organized into the different levels and tasks
Shang believed in what?
Shangdi
What did preists write questions on?
Oracle Bones
What were some of the tools that artisans worked with?
bone, ivory, jade
How many calanders did the Chinese use?
two
What is the the belief that spirits and inhabit everything-- with ancestor worship, people believed in a kindly dragon that lived in seas and rivers. Gods worshiped-- wind, sun, clouds, and moon?
Animisim
What is calligraphy?
the art of writing?
What is the main crop of China?
rice
The Huang, Chang, and Xi are the great rivers found where?
China Proper
What is one of the regions that surrounds the heart of China?
Tibet, Mongolia,etc...
What causes the Huang River to be tinted yellow?
Loess (yellow soil)
Because of its distastrous flooding the Huang has been nicknamed what?
China's Sorrow
What were built to prevent the flooding of the Huang, and have actually made the problem worse?
Dikes
What does Zhongguo mean?
"Middle Kingdom"
The unification of India helped to prodect it from what?
invasions
What caused the Mauryan Empire to decline?
Asoka's death
Except for the Southern tip, all of India was united under what?
The first Imperial Dynasty
What Mauryan ruler became sick of killing and became a buddhist?
Asoka
What were Indo-Aryans' works of religious liturature?
Vedas
Where did the Indo-Aryans come from?
north of the Black and Caspian seas
Where did Homo Sapiens migrate to?
Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas.
Early humans, hunter gatherers, relied on the availability of what?
wild plants and animals
Who study past cultures by locating and analyzing human remains, settlements, fossils, and artifacts?
Archaeologists
Who continues to find and interpret evidence of early humans and their lives?
Archaeologists
How does archaeology provide knowledge of early human life and its changes?
it shows how people lived, what they invented, and the cultural advances of cultures.
Archaeologists apply scientific tests, such as what, to analyze fossils and artifacts.
carbon dating
What two cities are examples of early cities in the Fertile Crescent studied by archaeologists?
Aleppo and Jericho
During the what age did permanent settlements appeared in river valleys? Where were these river valleys?
New Stone Age,Fertile Crescent
What do river valleys provide?
water and rich soil for crops as well as protection from invasion
Why did ancient civilizations develop in river valleys?
Water, easily accessible food source, rich soil, and protection from invaders.
Where were the earliest civilizations located?
Sumer, river valleys
When did the river valley civilizations exist?
about 3500 to 500 B.C. [B.C.E.]
What rivers did the Mesopotamian civilization live off of?
Tigris and Euphrates
The Nile River and Nile Delta (Africa) were home to what ancient civilization?
Egyptian
The Indian civilization was established on what river valley?
Indus River
What river valley did the Chinese civilization begin to develop?
Huang He (Yellow)
What is another term for the Yellow river?
Huang He
True or False. Are the river valley civilizations that we have studied located in river valleys with rich soil, good protection, and a good supply of water?
True
How long did the Hebrews and other early civilizations "live?"
about 2000 to 500 B.C. [B.C.E.]
Where did the Hebrews settle?
between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River Valley (Fertile Crescent)
What group of people settled along the Mediterranean coast? (part of the Fertile Crescent in Southwest Asia)
Phoenicians
Where did the Phoenicians settle?
Mediterranean coast
Where is Nubia located?
upper (Southern) Nile of Africa
What are river valleys also known as?
"Cradles of Civilization"
What did ancient civilizations also make major contributions to?
social, political, and economic progress.
Name two examples of the world's first "states."
city-states, empires, kingdoms
What are some of the most influential law codes that we have studied?
Code of Hammurabi, Ten Commandments
What were bronze and Iron used for?
tools and weapons
Why did the amount of agriculture expand?
better tools, plows, and irrigation
The Phoenicians helped trade along what?
rivers and by sea
True or false. religion was not a part of life in all early civilizations.
False (religion was a part of life in all early civilizations.)
What is the belief in more than one god or goddess?
Polytheism
What is Monotheism?
the belief in one god or goddess
Who practiced Monotheism?
Hebrews
Name two examples of Monotheistic religions.
Christianity, Judaism, Islam...etc...
What was the first culture to become monotheists?
Hebrews
The monotheism of Abraham became the foundations of what religions that changed the world?
Christianity, Judaism, and Islam
What is the origin of Judaism?
Abraham, Moses, Jerusalem
The belief in one god is known as what?
monotheism
What are the written records and beliefs of the Jews called?
The Torah
Define The Ten Commandments.
A written document which states moral and religious conduct.
Name a few cultural innovations.
language and writing
What are the earliest written symbols?
Pictograms
Where did Hieroglyphics originate?
Egypt
What is the writing that the Sumerians used called?
Cuneiform
Where did the Alphabet first develop?
Phoenicia
What was the largest empire in the world, at its time?
Persian Empire
What was the main religion practiced in Persia?
Zoroastrianism
Tolerance of conquered peoples, development of imperial bureaucracy, construction of road system, practice of Zoroastrianism, religion in Persia, belief in two opposing forces in the universe, these all effected how...what?
examples on how Persia governed itself.
Where did Classical India begin?
Indus River Valley, Ganges River valley
What group of people migrated into India and created the Caste System, by blending their beliefs with those of the indigenous people?
Indo-Aryan