Roman military leader who joined forces in 60 B.C.E. with other powerful Romans; he was elected consul in 59 B.C.E., then, along with Pompey and Crassus, dominated Rome through the triumvirate—he was a strong leader and a genius at military strategy; served one years as consul, then became governor of Gaul, of which he led the conquest—he was popular among the military and Roman people, especially the poor, but made enemies of the other members of the triumvirate, the nobility, and ultimately, the senate (though the senate appointed him "dictator for life" in 44 B.C.E.; Caesar governed as an absolute ruler but gained the support of many through his reforms, including granting
Roman citizenship to provincial peoples, expanding the senate, creating jobs for the poor,
began a colony on which landless people could own property, and increased soldiers' pay—
Caesar's burgeoning power, success, and popularity threatened the senate's influence—
others considered him a tyrant; senators plotted his assassination and stabbed him to death
in 44 B.C.E.