APUSH Period 2: Key Terms
Terms in this set (28)
A woman who challenged Purtian religous authorities in the Massachusetts Bay colony. Puritan authorities banished her in 1637 because she challenged religious doctrine, gender roles, clerical authority, and claimed to have had revelations from God
An uprising in 1676 led by Nathaniel Bacon, since the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley would not allow them to attack the natives. The rebels were mostly former indentured servants, who were an unstable population without property or employment. This emphasized the instability in the indentured servant system and was a factor in the transition of using African slaves as the main labor force.
Maryland and Virginia; southern colonies where tobacco was the main player in the economy.
English Civil War
Between 1642 and 1651, when Charles I tried to advocate the divine right of kings and dissolved Parliament only to bring them back to levy taxes. He was also seen as bringing too much Catholic influence to the Church of England. War broke out between Parliament's supporters (Roundheads)and the kings's supporters (Cavaliers). Later Charles I was tried and executed in 1649 as a"tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy". Oliver Cromwell ruled England as "Lord Protector" until 1658, when he died and Charles II was able to reclaim the throne.
In 1688 when Parliament expelled James II from the throne, a Catholic who bred resentment by electing Catholic officials and trying to become an absolute monarch, and replaced him with his daughter Mary and her husband, William.
Puritanism had declined by the 1730s, and people were upset about the decline in religious piety. The Great Awakening was a sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. Evangelical preachers, like Johnathan Edwards and George Whitefield, encouraged greater religious enthusiasm by breaking from the past and reviving a personal connection with God.
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who paid to come to come to america and brought indentured servants into America (they got 50 acres per person they paid for). They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
People who could not afford passage to the colonies for whom another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the they would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.
John Peter Zenger
A newspaper printer from New York, was arrested and tried for seditious libel for attacking the royal governor in 1733. He was acquitted with the help of his lawyer, Andrew Hamilton. This was a huge step for the freedom of the press.
A captain famous for world travel. As a young man, he took control in Jamestown. He organized the colony and saved many people from death the next winter. He also initiated attacks on Natives.
King Philip's War
A battle from 1675 to 1676 between the Wampanoags, led by a chief known as King Philip, and the settlers of New England, which marked the last major effort by the Native Americans of southern New England to drive out the English settlers.
Massachusetts Bay Company
Company that got a royal charter in 1629 and established the colony of Massachusetts Bay made up of Puritans.
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues.
1637 The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.
An Indian chieftain who dominated the peoples in the James River area. All the tribes loosely under his control came to be called Powhatan's confederacy. The colonists innacurately called all of the Indians powhatans.
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preached a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania.
A dissenter who clashed with Massachusetts Puritans over the issue of separation of church and state. After being banished from Massachusetts in 1636, he traveled south, where he founded the colony of Rhode Island, which granted full religious freedom to its inhabitants.
Salem Witch Trials
Several accusations of witchcraft led to trials in Salem Village, Massachusetts in 1692 at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. Nineteen people were hung as witches from very questionable evidence. Was a leading factor in the protections of the accused in the Constitution.
A series of laws which denied slaves basic fundamental rights, and gave their owners permission to treat them as they saw fit. Passed due to fear of slave uprisings in places were they outnumbered whites.
Sir William Berkeley
The royal governor of Virginia from 1642 until the 1670s. Adopted policies that favored large planters and neglected the needs of recent settlers in the 'backcountry' and had a nearly autocratic rule.
The most serious slave rebellion in the the colonial period which occurred in 1739 in South Carolina. 100 African Americans rose up, got weapons and killed several whites then tried to escape to Florida. The uprising was crushed and the participants executed. The main form of rebellion for slaves was running away, though there was no where to go.
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized human reason and scientific inquiry. The movement claimed not to undermine religion religion, but rather to support it, however, it introduced the idea that not all answers have to come from God and human advancement is possible without the help of God.
The main cash crop in the Chesapeake economy, with a high demand in Europe. However, the price constantly fluctuated due to overproduction which decreased prices.
A complex system of trade where New England sent rum to Africa, where it was exchanged for slaves, which were taken to the West Indies, where they were exchanged for sugar and molasses that were taken back to New England.
House of Burgesses
The first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619.
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
An English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before as payment for a debt Charles II owed his father. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance and as a safe haven for Quakers.