Chapter 41 - The Digestive System and Nutrition
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Terms in this set (15)
Define and distinguish among carnivores, herbivores, omnivores
Carnivores: animal eaters
Herbivores: plant eaters
Omnivores: eat both
Define essential nutrients.
A substance that cannot be synthesized from any other material. Has to be given in a preassembled form.
Describe the four classes of essential nutrients, and what humans use these nutrients to build.
essential amino acids
essential Fatty Acids
Vitamins- organic molecules
Minerals- inorganic substances
These help in growth and development.
Distinguish between water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins.
Fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, and K.
Water soluble vitamins: B and C
Vit. A function
Component of visual pigments, maintenance of epithelial tissues
Vit. D function
Aids in absorption and use of calcium and phosphorous.
Vit. E function
Antioxidant; helps prevent damage to cell membranes.
Vit. K function
Important in blood clotting
Vit. B3 function
Component of coenzymes NAD+ and NADP+
Explain the difference between vitamins and minerals, and know the function of minerals examples mentioned in class.
Vitamins are organic compounds.
Minerals are pure inorganic substances.
Vitamins are more important and sensitive for our body than minerals.
Distinguish among undernourishment, overnourishment, and malnourishment.
Undernourishment: You don't eat anything at all
Overnourishment: You eat more than your stomach can accept so you become fat and possibly obese.
Malnourishment: You eat all the wrong things.
Define and compare the four main stages of food processing, and where each occurs in humans.
Four main stages of food processing:
digestion- enzymatic breakdown of large molecules
absorption- uptake of nutrients by cells
elimination- passage of undigsted materials out of the body in feces.
Explain the difference between mechanical digestion and chemical digestion, the function of each, and where each occurs in humans.
Mechanical digestion breaks food down into smaller pieces and increases surface area available for chemical processes.
Chemical digestion is important because animals cannot directly use the proteins, carbs, nucleic acids, fats, and phospholipids in food. It uses chemicals or enzymes to further break down and digest food.
Name the many functions of saliva, and the role of amylase in digestion (chemical reaction performed by amylase - substrates and products).
Salivary glands secrete saliva
Contains an enzyme - lysozyme which kills some bacteria.
Contains an enzyme - salivary amylase which hydrolyzes starch (a glucose polymer from plants) and glycogen (a glucose polymer from animals) into smaller polysaccharides and the dissacharide Maltose.
Explain how swallowing occurs, how food is directed away from the trachea, and how food moves down the esophagus.
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