How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

185 terms

Chemistry Final Exam Review

Not including things I personally know very well, but if you want everything, you can go to the individual units.
There are over 6 million organic compounds because...
(1) carbon's unique bonding which allows many atoms to link by covalent bonds (2) isomerism
Carbon's unique bonding properties:
relatively small - only 6e- in 2 shells; forms 4 covalent bonds; can form single, double, and triple bonds
The shape of single bonds are...
The shape of double bonds are...
trigonal planar
The shape of triple bonds are...
Organic Properties
covalent bonds; high formula weights; low melting and boiling points; mostly non-polar; isomerism
Inorganic Properties
mostly ionic bonds; low formula weight; high melting and boiling points; polar; no isomerism
carboxyl (acid - always -ic)
also known as parafins (wax); relatively inactive - reactions include combustion (burn-synthesis) and halogenation (reacts with Halogens); non-polar; saturated (holding all it can/surrounded); a series of compounds that differ by a regular increment (CH2); general formular - CnH2n_2; compounds...
unsaturated hydrocarbon with 2 double bonds poly unsaturated
ringed compounds of carbon and hydrogen; very unstable
Aromatics (smelly)
derived from coal or petroleum; contain benzene
relating to or denoting organic compounds in which carbon atoms form open chains (as in the alkanes) not aromatic rings
the substance being dissolved
the substance doing the dissolving
Factors affecting solubility of a solid:
solubility is increased by agitation, increase of surface area, and heating
Factors affecting solubility of a gas
increase pressure, decrease temperature, no agitation
Factors affecting solubility of a liquid
must be miscible (both polar or both nonpolar)
Example of Solid in Liquid
koolaide (sugar in water)
Example of Gas in Liquid
soda (CO2 in H20)
Example of Gas in Gas
air (CO2 in O2)
Example of Liquid in Gas
fog/humidity (H2O in air)
Example of Solid in Solid
alloys (brass - Cu in Zn)
Example of Liquid in Liquid
cream in coffee
Example of Solid in Gas
pollen in air
moles of solute/liter of solution - used by small scale chemists
moles of solute/kg of solvent - use in industry
like molarity, but used for acids and bases - mostly in the health fields; like molarity (strength) but also takes into consideration the moles of H+ or OH- released
Arrhenius Definition of Acids
any substance that produces or increases H+ ion concentration in an aqueous (water-based) solution, an electrolyte; forms H3O+ (hydronium) ions
H+ ion
made of hydrogen and COOH (organic)
battery acid is
sulfuric acid
soda is
carbonic acid
stomach acid is
hydrochloric acid
vinegar is
acetic acid
lemon juice is
citric acid
Arrhenius Base (also called alkaline)
any substance that produces or increased OH- ions in an aqueous solution; no special naming, uses stocknames; are electrolytes
a controlled neutralization reaction where an acid or base whose concentration is known is reacted with an acid or base whose concentration is unknown. In the reaction enough of the known solution is added to totally neutralize the other (forms salt H2O)
(Gas) 3 Parts of Kinetic Theory
(1) Matter is made up of small particles (atoms) (2) Particles are far apart and moving (3) Collisions are elastic (no loss of energy)
(Gas) Properties of Gas
have mass; fill containers completely due to property of expansion; low density (molecules are far apart); compressibility; diffusion (gases move through each other - move from high to low concentration); gases exert pressure (push equally in all directions)
(Gas) What does diffusion depend on?
speed; diameter of particles; attractive forces
(Gas) Volume - state...condensation temperature (the highest temperature at which a gas cannot exist) - at this temperature...
(1) Kinetic Energy decreases (molecules slow down) (2) Attractive forces increase (molecules cling together (3) Vapor liquifies
(Gas) Standard Temperature
0 C, 32 F, 273 K
(Gas) Standard Pressure
the pressure exerted on a column of mercury at sea level; 760 torr, 760mm Hg, 1 atm
(Gas) Charles' Law
the volume of a definite quantity of a gas varies DIRECTLY as its KELVIN temperature

V1T2 = V2T1
(Gas) Boyle's Law
the volume of a definite quantity of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure provided the temperature remains constant

V1P1 = V2P2
(Solids) Kinetic Theory
very dense/closely packed molecules; strong intermolecular forces; molecules merely vibrate around fixed points
Properties of Solids
definite shape and volume; definite/unique melting point; incompressible; low rate of diffusion; low specific heats; amorphous or crystalline
Specific Heat
the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degrees Celsius
without shape (plastics and glass - manmade)
Types of Crystalline Solids
Ionic, Covalent, Molecular (Polar and Nonpolar), Metallic
held by ionic bonds (transfer of electrons between a metal and a nonmetal); strong attraction; high melting points (100 - 1000 C); very hard; solids don't conduct electricity, but liquids do; dissolve easily
Covalent (Network) Solids
held by covalent bonds (shared electrons); extremely hard; extremely high melting points (over 1000 C); almost impossible to break bonds; neither solid nor liquid are capable of conducting electricity
Molecular Solids
Polars: weak bond; some electrical attraction; relatively soft; relatively low melting points (0 - 100 C)
Nonpolars: held by weak Van de Waals forces; very soft; undergo sublimation; no electrical attraction
change directly from a solid to a gas without melting
Metallic Solids
held by mobile electrons (bond is similar to ionic); excellent conductors; wide range of melting points and hardness; malleable; ductile; lustrous
can be flattened into sheets
can be twisted into wires
(Liquids) Kinetic Theory
have definite volume; takes shape of container (no definite shape); molecules are in motion and experience diffusion; flow due to cohesion (molecules stick to each other); relatively incompressible (relatively high density)
Properties of Liquids
(affected by intermolecular attraction): viscosity; surface tension; vaporization; vapor pressure; volatile
thickness, a resistance to flowing
Surface Tension
force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together (creates an invisible film to hold molecules in); created by cohesion
changing from a liquid to a gas by boiling (at boiling point)
Boiling points...
are listed at STP as atmosphere pressure decreases boiling points decrease
Vapor Pressure
pressure exerted on a closed container (explains why a pot boils faster with a lid on it)
how easily something evaporates (goes off to a gaseous state without boiling)
If a substance was held by weak (nonpolar) bonds... its characteristics would be...
low density, low viscosity, low surface tension, low boiling point, high vapor pressure, high volatility
Water Properties (an atypical liquid)
Hydrogen bonding between molecules creates: high surface tension/cohesion; high boiling point; high specific heat; increase in volume and decrease in density with freezing; water freezes from the top down
Kinetic Theory and Phase Changes
As temperature increases bonds are broken, molecules move faster are more disordered and further apart. As temperature decreases attractive forces are increased, bonds are formed, and molecules become more ordered
amount of hear needed to raise 1 gram of WATER 1 C
Heat of Fusion
amount of energy needed to liquify a solid (break all of the bonds) while remaining at the melting point
FOR WATER THIS IS 80 cal/gram
Heat of Vaporization
amount of energy needed to turn a liquid to a gas while remaining at the boiling point
FOR WATER THIS IS 540 cal/gram
Law of Conservation of Matter
Matter cannot be created or destroyed, but can merely change forms by chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions
a process in which one or more substances are converted into new substances with different chemical and physical properties
releases heat; bond forming
absorbs heat; bond breaking
Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
Nature of Reactants (covalent bonds take longer to break); Temperature (hotter, faster); Concentration
helps reaction, but is not used up
Metallic carbonates, when heated, decompose to form...
a metallic oxide + carbon dioxide
Metallic hydroxides, when heated, decompose to form....
the metallic oxide + water
Metallic chlorates, when heated, decompose to form...
the metallic chloride + oxygen
Quantum Numbers
mathematical expressions that describe the energy state or election configuration of an atom
Electron Configuration
energy state of an atom
Plank and Schrodinger
Quantum Number developers
Principal Quantum Number
denotes the average distance of the electron from its nucleus (shells, floors)
The first shell is having the lowest energy...
K or 1
Orbital Quantum Number
describes the shape of the electron cloud in each shell or energy level (shapes are designated with cursive lower case letters) (sub-shells, apartments)
spherical, 1 orientation
dumbbell, 3 orientations
5 orientations
7 orientations
Magnetic Quantum Number
denotes the position or orientation of the different clouds about a 3D axis (rooms)
Spin Quantum Number
denotes the direction of spin of the electron in each orbital
greatest amount of electrons an orbital can hold
In orbitals of equal sharing no pairing of electrons takes place until...
all orbitals of equal energy hold at least 1 electron
Occurs in columns containing Cr and Cu when the d orbital has 4 or 9 electrons
Orbital Notation
shows exact position of each and every e- and its spin
Electron Configuration
shows the relative positions of all e-s
Electron Dot
shows only the e-s in the outmost shell or energy level
a neutral particle found naturally whose protons = electrons
a neutral particle found naturally whose protons = electrons BUT whose weight and neutrons are changed
Isotopes are usually...
Ionization Energy
energy that when added to an atom removes the valence electrons
Electron Affinity
the tendency for an atom to release energy when electrons are added
particle that is either positively charged or negatively charged because of lost or gained electrons
Nonpolar Covalent
equal sharing (no charge); strongest bond
Polar Covalent
unequal sharing (partial charge)
On the periodic table, the larger elements start from the top/bottom and decreases in size.
On the periodic table, the larger elements start from the left/right and decreases in size.
Chemistry is the study of...
matter and the changes it undergoes
Matter is...
anything that has mass and volume
the quantity of matter a body possesses
a measure of the earth's attraction for a body (earth's gravity = 1)
There are...known elements.
There are...naturally occurring known elements
...of the known elements are man-made
Some people believe elements are possible
...takes up 49.5% on Earth
Oxygen (O)
...takes up 25.8% on Earth
Silicon (Si)
...takes up 7.5% on Earth
Aluminum (Al)
...takes up 4.7% on Earth
Iron (Fe)
...takes up 3.4% on Earth
Calcium (Ca)
remaining 9% are made up of
the other 87 combined
said that things were made out of individual particles
Father of Atomic Theory
Dalton's Theory
each element is made of atoms; atoms of a given element are identical, and differ from atoms of other elements; atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions; a given compound always has the same relative numbers and kinds of atoms
Ernest Rutherford
proposed the idea that the atom had a positive dense nucleus and a cloud of weightless negative electrons orbited the nucleus
Niels Bohr
developed the idea that electrons existed at set levels of energy and at fixed distances from the nucleus - shells
Diatomic molecules
2 atoms per molecule
The Periodic Table is constructed in accordance with an element's...
chemical activity or ability to take part in chemical reactions
columns that run from top to bottom
IA Alkali Metals (Sodium Family)
form acids
IIA Alkaline Earths (Magnesium Family)
form bases
VII Halogens
form salts
VIII Noble, Inert, Rare Gases
inactive, cannot form compounds, scarce
B Columns - Transition Elements
their reactions vary slightly due to their surroundings
horizontal rows
Series/Periods Sequence
atomic number and mass (mass has few exceptions)
discovered electron
Man-made elements are heavier/lighter than those which occur naturally
Deca (dk_)
Deci (d_)
Micro (u_)
in cm; always 2 decimal places
in mL; 1 decimal place in graduated cylinder; 2 decimal places in buret; read meniscus, watch scale
in grams; always 2 decimal places; use balance, calibrate first, move largest weight first
close to accepted value (sig figs)
repeatedly the same
acid spill
sprinkle with sodium bi/carbonate; when it stops bubbling, wipe it up
base spill
cover with kitty litter; wipe it up
spill on the floor
throw sand on it
3 DON'TS of Chemistry
DON'T return unused chemicals to original bottle
DON'T put the bottle cap on the table
DON'T blow bubbles with your pipet
3 A's of Chemistry
Always Add Acid
a "C" inside a square represents...
corrosive, chemical can cause severe burns; chemicals should be treated with special care; wash for several minutes if touched skin
an "I" inside a square represents...
irritant, chemical can irritate skin and membranes; chemicals should be treated with special care
an "F" inside a square represents...
flammable; use a hot plate for heat source
a "T" inside a square represents...
toxic; clean up spills; never touch face with unwashed hands; no eating, chewing, or drinking; don't inhale instead, sniff
situation: fainting
provide fresh air; head lower than body; notify
situation: eye injury
20 minutes of flushing with water; remove contact lenses; do not rub if foreign object is present in eye
situation: poisoning
note substance; alert teacher immediately
glass or plastic; 50 mL, 100 mL, 250 mL, 400 mL; glass may be heated; used for mixing, never measuring
glass; 25 mL, 50 mL; used to measure volumes of liquids to the nearest .01 mL
double buret clamp
may be fastened to support apparatus
pinch clamp
metal; used to block off rubber tubing
erlenmeyer flask
glass; 100 mL, 250 mL, used to heat liquids
florence flask
glass; 125 mL, 250 mL, 500 mL; used for heating liquids; making and storing solutions
gas burner - barrel
about 5 inches tall; where the oxygen and fuel mix
gas burner - collar
opens and closes the air intake
gas burner - air intake openings
lets oxygen in
gas burner - gas intake tube
connects burner to fuel supply
gas burner - spud
most important part of a burner; releases fuel in one direction; produces flame's cone shape
gas burner - needle valve
controls the amount of gas and/or height of gas
a good flame is...
non-luminous; blue; 5-8 cm
the hottest point of the flame is...
the tip of cone B (middle color)
graduated cylinder
glass or plastic; 10 mL, 50 mL, 100 mL; used to measure approximate volumes to the nearest .1 mL; must not be heated
graduated pipet
glass; 10 mL, 25 mL; used to measure solution volumes; less accurate than a volumetric pipet
stirring rod and rubber policeman
glass with rubber sleeve; used to stir and assist in pouring liquids and for removing precipitates from a container
triangular file
metal, used to scratch glass tubing prior to breaking to desired length
wide-mouth bottle
glass; used with pneumatic trough
wire gauze
spreads burner flame for even heating (; placed below evaporating dish)
Filtering a Mixture DON'TS
fill the funnel higher than the paper
put water on your filter paper if your filtering an oily substance
solid left over in the filter paper
liquid that goes into the beaker after filtering