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There are over 6 million organic compounds because...
(1) carbon's unique bonding which allows many atoms to link by covalent bonds (2) isomerism
Carbon's unique bonding properties:
relatively small - only 6e- in 2 shells; forms 4 covalent bonds; can form single, double, and triple bonds
covalent bonds; high formula weights; low melting and boiling points; mostly non-polar; isomerism
mostly ionic bonds; low formula weight; high melting and boiling points; polar; no isomerism
also known as parafins (wax); relatively inactive - reactions include combustion (burn-synthesis) and halogenation (reacts with Halogens); non-polar; saturated (holding all it can/surrounded); a series of compounds that differ by a regular increment (CH2); general formular - CnH2n_2; compounds...
relating to or denoting organic compounds in which carbon atoms form open chains (as in the alkanes) not aromatic rings
Factors affecting solubility of a solid:
solubility is increased by agitation, increase of surface area, and heating
like molarity, but used for acids and bases - mostly in the health fields; like molarity (strength) but also takes into consideration the moles of H+ or OH- released
Arrhenius Definition of Acids
any substance that produces or increases H+ ion concentration in an aqueous (water-based) solution, an electrolyte; forms H3O+ (hydronium) ions
Arrhenius Base (also called alkaline)
any substance that produces or increased OH- ions in an aqueous solution; no special naming, uses stocknames; are electrolytes
a controlled neutralization reaction where an acid or base whose concentration is known is reacted with an acid or base whose concentration is unknown. In the reaction enough of the known solution is added to totally neutralize the other (forms salt H2O)
(Gas) 3 Parts of Kinetic Theory
(1) Matter is made up of small particles (atoms) (2) Particles are far apart and moving (3) Collisions are elastic (no loss of energy)
(Gas) Properties of Gas
have mass; fill containers completely due to property of expansion; low density (molecules are far apart); compressibility; diffusion (gases move through each other - move from high to low concentration); gases exert pressure (push equally in all directions)
(Gas) Volume - state...condensation temperature (the highest temperature at which a gas cannot exist) - at this temperature...
(1) Kinetic Energy decreases (molecules slow down) (2) Attractive forces increase (molecules cling together (3) Vapor liquifies
(Gas) Standard Pressure
the pressure exerted on a column of mercury at sea level; 760 torr, 760mm Hg, 1 atm
(Gas) Charles' Law
the volume of a definite quantity of a gas varies DIRECTLY as its KELVIN temperature
V1T2 = V2T1
(Gas) Boyle's Law
the volume of a definite quantity of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure provided the temperature remains constant
V1P1 = V2P2
(Solids) Kinetic Theory
very dense/closely packed molecules; strong intermolecular forces; molecules merely vibrate around fixed points
Properties of Solids
definite shape and volume; definite/unique melting point; incompressible; low rate of diffusion; low specific heats; amorphous or crystalline
the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degrees Celsius
held by ionic bonds (transfer of electrons between a metal and a nonmetal); strong attraction; high melting points (100 - 1000 C); very hard; solids don't conduct electricity, but liquids do; dissolve easily
Covalent (Network) Solids
held by covalent bonds (shared electrons); extremely hard; extremely high melting points (over 1000 C); almost impossible to break bonds; neither solid nor liquid are capable of conducting electricity
Polars: weak bond; some electrical attraction; relatively soft; relatively low melting points (0 - 100 C)
Nonpolars: held by weak Van de Waals forces; very soft; undergo sublimation; no electrical attraction
held by mobile electrons (bond is similar to ionic); excellent conductors; wide range of melting points and hardness; malleable; ductile; lustrous
(Liquids) Kinetic Theory
have definite volume; takes shape of container (no definite shape); molecules are in motion and experience diffusion; flow due to cohesion (molecules stick to each other); relatively incompressible (relatively high density)
Properties of Liquids
(affected by intermolecular attraction): viscosity; surface tension; vaporization; vapor pressure; volatile
force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together (creates an invisible film to hold molecules in); created by cohesion
pressure exerted on a closed container (explains why a pot boils faster with a lid on it)
If a substance was held by weak (nonpolar) bonds... its characteristics would be...
low density, low viscosity, low surface tension, low boiling point, high vapor pressure, high volatility
Water Properties (an atypical liquid)
Hydrogen bonding between molecules creates: high surface tension/cohesion; high boiling point; high specific heat; increase in volume and decrease in density with freezing; water freezes from the top down
Kinetic Theory and Phase Changes
As temperature increases bonds are broken, molecules move faster are more disordered and further apart. As temperature decreases attractive forces are increased, bonds are formed, and molecules become more ordered
Heat of Fusion
amount of energy needed to liquify a solid (break all of the bonds) while remaining at the melting point
FOR WATER THIS IS 80 cal/gram
Heat of Vaporization
amount of energy needed to turn a liquid to a gas while remaining at the boiling point
FOR WATER THIS IS 540 cal/gram
Law of Conservation of Matter
Matter cannot be created or destroyed, but can merely change forms by chemical reactions
a process in which one or more substances are converted into new substances with different chemical and physical properties
Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
Nature of Reactants (covalent bonds take longer to break); Temperature (hotter, faster); Concentration
mathematical expressions that describe the energy state or election configuration of an atom
Principal Quantum Number
denotes the average distance of the electron from its nucleus (shells, floors)
Orbital Quantum Number
describes the shape of the electron cloud in each shell or energy level (shapes are designated with cursive lower case letters) (sub-shells, apartments)
Magnetic Quantum Number
denotes the position or orientation of the different clouds about a 3D axis (rooms)
In orbitals of equal sharing no pairing of electrons takes place until...
all orbitals of equal energy hold at least 1 electron
a neutral particle found naturally whose protons = electrons BUT whose weight and neutrons are changed
particle that is either positively charged or negatively charged because of lost or gained electrons
each element is made of atoms; atoms of a given element are identical, and differ from atoms of other elements; atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions; a given compound always has the same relative numbers and kinds of atoms
proposed the idea that the atom had a positive dense nucleus and a cloud of weightless negative electrons orbited the nucleus
developed the idea that electrons existed at set levels of energy and at fixed distances from the nucleus - shells
The Periodic Table is constructed in accordance with an element's...
chemical activity or ability to take part in chemical reactions
in mL; 1 decimal place in graduated cylinder; 2 decimal places in buret; read meniscus, watch scale
3 DON'TS of Chemistry
DON'T return unused chemicals to original bottle
DON'T put the bottle cap on the table
DON'T blow bubbles with your pipet
a "C" inside a square represents...
corrosive, chemical can cause severe burns; chemicals should be treated with special care; wash for several minutes if touched skin
an "I" inside a square represents...
irritant, chemical can irritate skin and membranes; chemicals should be treated with special care
a "T" inside a square represents...
toxic; clean up spills; never touch face with unwashed hands; no eating, chewing, or drinking; don't inhale instead, sniff
situation: eye injury
20 minutes of flushing with water; remove contact lenses; do not rub if foreign object is present in eye
glass or plastic; 50 mL, 100 mL, 250 mL, 400 mL; glass may be heated; used for mixing, never measuring
glass; 125 mL, 250 mL, 500 mL; used for heating liquids; making and storing solutions
gas burner - spud
most important part of a burner; releases fuel in one direction; produces flame's cone shape
glass or plastic; 10 mL, 50 mL, 100 mL; used to measure approximate volumes to the nearest .1 mL; must not be heated
glass; 10 mL, 25 mL; used to measure solution volumes; less accurate than a volumetric pipet
stirring rod and rubber policeman
glass with rubber sleeve; used to stir and assist in pouring liquids and for removing precipitates from a container
Filtering a Mixture DON'TS
fill the funnel higher than the paper
put water on your filter paper if your filtering an oily substance
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