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McCullouch v. Maryland

The court case that ruled that the United States bank was constitutional

Gibbons v. Ogden

Regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government

Baron v. Baltimore

Bill of Rights applied only to USA, not the states

United States v. Lopez

Congress had exceeded its commerce clause power by prohibiting guns in a school zone

Marbury v. Madison

This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review

Shaw v. Reno

Allowed creation of majority-minority districts.

Easley v. Cromartie

Court said it was not an unconstitutional racial gerrymander -- race is not an illegitimate consideration in redistricting as long as it is not the dominant and controlling one.

Dred Scott v. Sanford

Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens

Roe v. Wade

(1973) legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy

Baker v. Carr

Reapportionment can be heard by court

Miranda v. Arizona

The accused must be notified of their rights before being questioned by the police; Miranda rights

Plessy v. Ferguson

Supreme Court case which stipulated that seperate but equal facilities were constitutional

Brown v. Board of Education

Court ruled that segregation was unconstitutional, overturned Plessey v Ferguson.

Lemon v. Kurtzman

The 1971 Supreme Court decision that established that aid to church-related schools must (1) have a secular legislative purpose; (2) have a primary effect that neither advances nor inhibits religion; and (3) not foster excessive government entanglement with religion.

Casey v. Planned Parenthood

Upheld Roe v. Wade, abortion: 24-hour waiting on all abortions minors must have parental permission

Griswold v. Connecticut

Established that there is an implied right to privacy in the U.S. Constitution

Mapp v. Ohio

Established the exclusionary rule was applicable to the states (evidence seized illegally cannot be used in court)

Gitlow v. New York

Established selective incorporation of the Bill of rights; states cannot deny freedom of speech; protected through the 14th amendment

Gideon v. Wainwright

A person who cannot afford an attorney may have one appointed by the government

Engle v. Vitale

Mandatory prayer in schools is a violation of the establishment clause

United States v. Nixon

1974 Supreme Court decision that executive privilege does not give one the authority to hide documents

Clinton v. City of New York

1998 Supreme Court decision that the line-item veto is unconstitutional

Goldberg v. Kelly

14th amendment requires welfare recipients to have a notice/hearing before state can stop benefits

Buckley v. Valeo

Candidates can use as much of their own money on their own campaigns

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