CRIM JUSTICE Chapter 2
Terms in this set (37)
what are crimes ?
are actions that violate laws defining which socially harmful behaviors will be subject to the government power to impose punishment.
Definition of crime varies across time and
Mala in se:
wrong by their nature
wrong because prohibited by
Punishable by more than 1 year in
prison or death
Punishable by less than 1
year in prison, probation,, or intermediate
Nature of the act is...
An offense against persons or property. Often
called "street crime " or "ordinary crime"
* Violent crimes
- Acts against people that threaten or involve injury or death
* Property crimes
- Acts that threaten property held by individuals or the state
* Public order crimes
-Acts that threaten the well-being of society and
challenge accepted moral principles
Crimes without victims involve a willing and
private exchange of goods and services that are
in strong demand but are illegal
* Crimes against morality often to be victimless
- Drug sales and use Drug sales and use
- Often private exchange of illegal goods
Victimless crimes are often considered...
Mala in se crimes
Criminal offenses committed through opportunities created in a legal business or occupation
Refers to the framework within which acts
Crime syndicate has organizational structure,
rules, division of labor, capacity for violence
Network of activities, usually cutting across state and national borders
Transnational crime (terrorism, human trafficking)
Crimes against the government that are
carried out for ideological purposes
In western democracies few political crimes
What are the three ways to measure crime?
1) The Uniform Crime Reports
2) The National Crime Victimization Surveys
3) Self-report Studies
The Uniform Crime Reports
An annual statistical summary of crimes reported by the local police to the FBI
Voluntary reporting by local, state, and federal
law enforcement to the FBI
Measures only offenses known to police
Report includes only 29 types of crimes
Problems with UCR
1. Citizen reporting practices, most crimes go unreported
2. police reporting practices, crime standards might differ across departments
3. many times of crimes are not included aka political or corporate crime.
4. Political manipulation
The National Crime Victimization Surveys
Surveys conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau
Same people are interviewed twice a year for three
years; asked if they have been victimized in the last
Includes both reported and unreported crimes
Provides information on victims and offenders,
when and where crimes occurred
Problems with NCVS
Excludes some types of crimes
1. Victimless crimes (drug use, tax evasion, gambling,
public order offenses)
2. Crimes that occur in a business
Over-reporting and under reporting
crimes due to memory problems
20% (3.8 million) were crimes of violence
(not including homicide)
U.S. residents over age 12 experienced
about 18.7 million crimes in 2010.
79% (14.7 million) were property crimes
According to NCVS data, what percentage of NCVS data,
crimes in the U.S. in 2010 were violent?
Has violent crime generally increased, decreased, or
stayed about the same in the U.S. since the mid-1990s?
A crime that is punishable by less than a year
in jail/prison is called a:
Which is the most
victimized demographic group?
African American teenage girls
Which is the
least victimized demographic
White elderly females
are most crimes intra-racial?
what are the two main schools of criminology?
Classical Theory and Positivist Theory
Criminal behavior is rational, stems from free will
Punishment should be swift, certain, and severe
(just severe enough to deter)
Use science to study the body, mind, and
environment of the offender
Behavior stems from *social, biological, and
Emphasize crime is caused by social conditions
Criminals are made not born.
What are the three main types of sociological theories?
1) Social Structure
2) Social Process
3) Social Conflict
Link criminal behavior to social class and
Assume that criminality results from the interactions
of people with the institutions, organizations, and
processes of society.
Argue that criminal law and the criminal justice
system are primarily a means of controlling the poor
and the "have and the "have-nots" in society
These theories view criminality as normal
behavior, believing that everyone has the
potential to become a criminal depending on
Classical criminology holds that criminal
behavior is irrational.
False, classical criminology hold that criminals behavior is rational and stems from free will.