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GMO- ch. 11
Terms in this set (57)
the bending, tilting, and breaking of the earth's crust; the change in the shape of rock in response to stress
5 causes for deformation
isostasy, stress, strain, folds, and faults
A condition of gravitational and buoyant equilibrium between Earth's lithosphere and asthenosphere.
a rise of land to a higher elevation by isostatic adjustment (as in the process of mountain building)
3 types of isostasy
mountains, deposition, and glaciers
mountains and isostasy
isostatic adjustments can occur which erodes the mountains through the actions of wind, water, and ice. this can decrease the height and weight of a mountain range.
deposition and isostasy
a type of isostatic adjustment that occurs from the movement of water pushing deposited materials that adds weight to the ocean floor.
a gradual sinking of the ocean floor to a lower level
glaciers and isostasy
a type of isostatic adjustment that occurs as a result of the growth and retreat of glaciers and ice sheets which causes the ocean floors to sink.
the amount of force per unit area that acts on a rock.
3 types of stress
compression, tension, and shear stress
a type of stress that squeezes and shortens a body, such as a rock (changes the shape of a rock while pushing it higher up or deeper down into the crust)
a type of stress that stretches and pulls a body apart.
a type of stress that forms at convergent boundaries or where tectonic plates collide.
a type of stress that occurs at divergent boundaries or where tectonic plates pull apart.
a type of stress that distorts a body by pushing parts of the body in opposite directions.
a type of stress that occurs at transform boundaries or where tectonic plates slide past each other.
any change in a rock's shape or volume caused by stress
materials that respond to stress by breaking or fracturing
materials that respond to stress by bending or deforming without breaking
2 types of permanent strain
brittle and ductile
a change in the volume or shape of rock in which the rock does not crack or fracture.
factors that affect strain
-The composition of rock determines where rock is ductile or brittle.
-Temperature and pressure also affect how rock deforms.
a form of ductile strain in which rock layers bend, usually as a result of compression
The sloping sides of a fold; meet at the hinge.
where the limbs meet; the bend in the rock layers.
If both halves of a fold are symmetrical, then the fold has an --. -- is a place that could slice the fold into two symmetrical halves
If a fold is ---, it appears to be lying on its side.
An upward fold in rock formed by compression of Earth's crust; the oldest layer is at the center of the fold.
a downward fold in rock formed by compression in earth's crust; youngest layer is at the center of the fold
A fold in which both limbs are horizontal or almost horizontal.
3 major types of folds
anticline, monocline, and syncline
a large, narrow strip of elevated land that can occur near mountains.
a break in a body of rock along which one block slides relative to another; a form of brittle strain
a break along which there is no movement of the surrounding rock.
the surface of plane along which the motion occurs
the rock above the fault plane.
the rock below the fault plane.
3 types of faults
normal, reverse, and strike-slip
a fault in which the hanging wall moves downward relative to the footwall.
a fault that forms when compression causes the hanging wall to move upward relative to the footwall.
a special type of reverse fault in which the fault plane is at a low angle or is nearly horizontal.
a fault where the rock on either side of the fault plane slide horizontally in response to shear stress.
hits parallel to the direction of the length
a series of mountains that are closely related in orientation, age, and mode of formation
a group of adjacent mountain ranges
group of two large mountain systems
3 types of collisions that form mountains
continental and oceanic crust; oceanic crust and oceanic crust; continents and continents
a mountain that forms when rock layers are squeezed together and lifted.
large, flat areas of rock high above sea level (formed from same stresses that form folded mountains)
a mountain that forms where faulting breaks Earth's crust into large blocks, which causes some blocks to drop down relative to other blocks.
long, narrow valleys (formed from same stresses that form fault-block mountains)
a circular or elliptical, almost symmetrical elevation or structure in which the stratified rock slopes downward gently from the central point of folding.
3 types of mountains
folded, fault-block, dome
mountains that form when magma erupts on Earth's surface
volcanically active areas that can lie far from tectonic boundaries.
Recommended textbook explanations
Arthur T. DeGaetano, Jay M. Pasachoff, Mead A. Allison
Earth Science: The Physical Setting (Prentice Hall Brief Review for the New York Regents Exam)
Jeffrey C. Callister
Interactive Science: Ecology and the Environment
Applications and Investigations in Earth Science
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