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__________ was based on an agreement between lords and vassals.

Middle Ages

Historical period between the Classic Age and the Modern Age.


Plentiful natural resources allowed ________ to be self-supporting.

Lord - Vassal system

Based on the granting of land in exchange for military service.


Charlemagne helped to spread ____________.


Pope Gregory VII's response to King Henry IV's disobeying him.


Head of the Roman Catholic Church

Seljuk Turks

Their takeover of the Holy Land prompted the First Crusade.


They were persecuted - blamed - after the Crusades and the Black Death.


Series of wars fought over the Holy Land.

Thomas Aquinas

He believed that Greek thought could coexist with Christian ideas.


Who preserved ancient Greek works?


Who preserved Latin and ancient texts?

the Church

It had enormous influence over every aspect of life.

Habeus Corpus

This protects people from unlawful imprisonment.

Magna Carta

Guaranteed protection under the law and a trial by jury.


An independent _____________ protects citizens' rights from the government.


They brought peace and stability to Europe, allowing towns to grow.


Because Europe's geography provided people with everything they needed to live, manors were able to be _______________, or able to make everything they needed.

Cathedral schools

preserved the Latin language.


Because of its wealth, the Church was more powerful than _______________.

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