Terms in this set (70)
-required for proper transportation, examination, and treatment of any animal species
The degree of restraint required reflects what?
-animal's familiarity with handling
-duration of the procedure
Complications of restraint
-Trauma (contusions, bruising, lacerations, nerve paralysis)
-Metabolic disturbances (acidosis, hypoxia, hypocalcemia, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia)
How can horses inflict injury?
How do you move next to a horse?
-Speak quietly, avoid sudden movements
-Never move under or stand directly behind horse
-If walking behind a horse, walk
1) very close with your body touching the hindquarters
2) move away to a distance of 15 feet
How far around can a horse see?
How should you tie a horse to something?
-tie to sturdy object
-tie short and high enough so horse can not step over lead or rope tie-level with head
What is the left side of a horse called?
What is the right side of a horse called?
What are the horse restraint tools?
-Halter and lead rope
-Nose or lip chains
How do you lead a horse in stocks?
-open front and back of stocks before entering stocks
-lead horse through stocks, do not look back
-if horse balks at stocks, give a few moments at rest near stocks, then encourage from rear
-stay close to horse when in stocks, tie high if needed
-circle horse to the left if necessary
How do you put a halter on a horse?
-approach from left side
-always let horse see you or know where you are
-approach at shoulder area
-place lead rope around neck, slide nose band over horse's nose, buckle strap behind ears
-attach lead rope to ventral or side ring of halter
Where should the lead rope be?
near head, not down neck
How do you lead a horse?
-hold lead rope in right hand
-walk beside and slightly in front of horse
-do not look at horse
-do not walk backward in front of horse
Where can chains be applied? What do they do? How do you use them?
-under chin, over nose, inside mouth, and under lip
-allow more restraint especially in unruly colts and stallions
-lead rope chain is attached to ventral halter ring or to lateral rings and placed accordingly over, under, or inside mouth
-never tie horse with chains in place
What are twitches? What do they do? What are possible problems?
-source of restraint if used correctly
-distraction and release of endorphins which further enhances tolerance to pain
-possible injury to person or horse; horses sometimes will strike with front legs or rare up
What are the types of twitches?
How do you use a twitch?
-hand twitching performed by turning head toward you and grasping fold of skin of neck near shoulder
-may also grasp upper lip with hand and shake gently
-avoid ear twitching-leads to behavior problems
-never apply twitch without halter in place
-twitch only works until nose becomes numb (20 min)
What is the twitching procedure?
1) slide hand through chain or rope of twitch
2) grasp upper lip and slightly pull away from gums
3) slide twitch chain over hand and on lip
4) begin to twist handle until secure
Humane twitches are the same but apply as a nutcracker
-wrap string around end of twitch
Most common reasons for failure of twitching
-twisting chain against itself
-pulling downward after application
What is usually the client's responsibility?
If loading assistance is required, do what?
use same techniques as loading in stocks
How should foals be handled?
-attempt to keep mare and foal in close proximity to each other
-best is two person approach where one handles foal and other controls mare
How you handle foals not halter broke?
-should be cradled by using one arm under neck near chest and other arm behind rump
-if foals slumps, loosen up on hold
-after cradling, shift weight of foal against mare, wall, or handler
-can grasp tailhead of foals but do not hold up as foal will slump or sit down
How do you handle newborn foals?
can be cast gently and placed in lateral recumbency
How do you handle halter broke foals?
-place loop of rope over rump, run long end of rope toward front and through ventral ring of halter
-pull steady and consistently
-some foals will slump or sit down
-make sure rope does not drop low enough to pull legs under foal
How can cattle inflict injury?
What is the average flight distance of cattle?
5 to 6 meters
When are cattle haltered or led?
usually only in shows
How do you get cattle to go to a specific destination?
-avoid dogs unless they are well trained
What cattle breeds are more docile?
What cattle breeds are more unpredictable?
-Jersey dairy bulls
What are the cattle restraint facilities and equipment?
-Chute or stock
-Alleyway, palpation gate, sweep tub
-Ropes for casting and securing limbs
-Hotshot, paddle, prod, pole
-Nose tong, nose ring
-Provides restraint by using head gate and squeezable sides
-These sides have panels or bars that can be let down for more access to animal for procedures
-Various head plates and head restraint devices enable procedures such as dehorning and blood sampling
-Some are portable
-similar to chutes, but do not have squeezable sides
-some are portable
When are stocks not to be used?
wild or fractious cattle
-Gates are directly behind head chute and allow access to rear of cow for palpation or other procedures.
-prevent other cattle from coming up behind person from alley
-passages for cattle to be moved but not allow them to turn around
-Alleys should be strong, possibly solid panels
-Alleys most commonly are made out of wood fencing material
-This is the most common area where facility failure occurs
-Always check for security and strength of alleys
-Cattle exert a lot of pressure on alley sides by trying to turn around, jump over, or crowd them-selves
-Alley gates also should be easy to fasten, close and open
-They should be close to ground to prevent cattle from trying to go under them
-These pens are usually rounded and can be reduced in size to encourage small groups of cattle to go into alleys or chutes
-These are very helpful with calves or wild cattle
-Pens are usually solid sides to prevent cattle from seeing surroundings
Beware of what in debilitated animals while processing?
Catching cattle in the head chute requires what?
-determined and timed planning based on speed and attitude of cattle
-Horned cattle require more planning and effort
-Most are single piece rope halters with adjustable part under jaw
-Most do not have buckles or snaps such as equine halters
-slip over head, nose piece adjusted, and tighten by pulling slack form slip honda under jaw
-cow is placed in chute or close confinement
-Grasp tail head with both hands and push tail straight over dorsum
-If tail deviates to side, restraint is not as effective
-This acts much like twitching horse and allows minor restraint
-Cows usually will not kick if performed properly
What are complications of tailing up?
-fatigue of arm
-damage to vertebrae of cow
-cow feces on hands
-used to place cow in lateral or sternal recumbency
-Secure halter of animal, tie to sturdy fence post, tie low
-Locate midpoint of long rope over dorsal aspect of neck
-Run rope under front legs, over back and crisscross, then down in between rear legs
-Stand behind cow and pull both ends caudally until cow lays down
-Sometimes does not work
-avoid getting kicked placing rope
Burley casting technique
most popular casting technique
-used to place animal in lateral recumbency
-approach animal from left side
-place left arm over neck and grasp skin of ventral neck
-Grasp right flank with right hand
-Push right leg into animal while lifting animal off ground and lay animal down with dorsum toward you
-Place left knee and bent leg over neck and restrain by holding left legs
What are also common procedures in restraint?
securing restraint of legs and feet while in a chute
When restraining legs and feet, what knots should be used?
easy place and release types
When securing legs and feet of cattle, what is the long end of the rope secured to?
up onto top side of chute
What should be avoided when securing legs and feet or cattle?
allowing legs to be drawn too far laterally or animal laying down in chute
-electrical powered device used to coax cattle to move
-Be careful with excessive use; Causes intense pain and many animals will kick or buck upon stimulation
graphite rod, non-electrical
resembles boat paddle, filled with beads making a rattling noise
used to hook nose ring of bulls
-placed in nose
-used mainly for control of head
-Works well when used in head chute to draw blood out of neck
-Caution should be taken to avoid damage to nasal septum
How can goats cause injury?
-trying to jump over handlers
How can goats be viewed?
What are the goat restraint tools?
-Collar and lead rope
Collar for goats
-placed on neck leaving 2 inches spacing between collar and neck
-Most goats are tame and docile and easily handled
-raised platform with head restraint device
-Some goats will jump up on stanchion when encouraged
straddle goat and raise head
How can pigs inflict injury?
Pig restraint tools
-Castration "handstand" hold
Most swine are moved from point to point using what?
-3 foot by 4 foot panels with 2 hand holds
-Pigs can not see where they are going except on their side of board
-Keep board close to ground to prevent swine from rooting under
-Use panel to guide animal in direction desired
-Keep in close proximity and along side of animal
-grasp animal by both rear legs proximal to hocks and swing up with pig's back next to handlers legs
-With near ground, squeeze head and neck so that they are facing the opposite direction
-Some small swine can be restrained by simply raising front legs off the ground
-approach from left side and quickly grasp snout with loop
-Tighten loop after placing behind canine teeth
-Pig will pull against snare
-Avoid placing loop too far up snout as to prevent damage to nares and sinuses
-Do not restrain using snare for more than 20 minutes
-Swine will become wise and avoid this procedure after a few times
How can llamas inflict injury?
Llama restraint uses techniques similar to...
horse and cow
Llama restraint tools
-Halter and lead rope
-Stocks or chutes
-Stocks specifically designed for llamas— ideal, but frequently unavailable at veterinary facilities