Extreme Anxiety - Extreme anxiety may lead to respiratory alkalosis by causing hyperventilation, which results in excessive carbon dioxide (CO2) loss. Other conditions that may set the stage for respiratory alkalosis include fever, heart failure, injury to the brain's respiratory center, overventilation with a mechanical ventilator, pulmonary embolism, and early salicylate intoxication. Type 1 diabetes may lead to diabetic ketoacidosis; the deep, rapid respirations occurring in this disorder (Kussmaul's respirations) don't cause excessive CO2 loss. Myasthenia gravis and opioid overdose suppress the respiratory drive, causing CO2 retention, not CO2 loss; this may lead to respiratory acidosis, not alkalosis. Urine pH of 3.0
Normal urine pH is 4.5 to 8; therefore, a urine pH of 3.0 is abnormal and requires further investigation. Urine specific gravity normally ranges from 1.010 to 1.025, making this client's value normal. Normally, urine contains no protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, bacteria, casts, or crystals. Red blood cells should measure 0 to 3 per high-power field; white blood cells, 0 to 4 per high-power field. Urine should be clear, with color ranging from pale yellow to deep amber.
"I can use laxatives and enemas but only once a week."
The patient is experiencing hypokalemia most likely due to the diagnosis of bulimia. Hypokalemia is defined as a serum K+ level below 3.5 mEq/L [3.5 mmol/L], and usually indicates a deficit in total potassium stores. Patients diagnosed with bulimia frequently suffer increased potassium loss through self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, diuretics, and enemas; thus, the patient should avoid laxatives and enemas. Prevention measures may involve encouraging the patient at risk to eat foods rich in potassium (when the diet allows) including fruit juices and bananas, melon, citrus fruits, fresh and frozen vegetables, lean meats, milk, and whole grains. If the hypokalemia is caused by abuse of laxatives or diuretics, patient education may help alleviate the problem.
Calcium deficit is associated with the following symptoms: numbness and tingling of the fingers, toes, and circumoral region; positive Trousseau's sign and Chvostek's sign; seizures, carpopedal spasms, hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, irritability, bronchospasm, anxiety, impaired clotting time, decreased prothrombin, diarrhea, and hypotension. Electrocardiogram findings associated with hypocalcemia include prolonged QT interval and lengthened ST.