Spearheaded the movement for planned urban parks, in 1857, helping to design NYC's Central Park.
Orville and Wilbur Wright
Used engines to fly "heavier-than-air" craft. Their first successful flight was December 17, 1903.
Developed light-weight equipment and studio processing. In 1888, he introduced the Kodak camera. It was easy to operate, and millions used the Kodak camera.
Booker T. Washington
Believed that racism would end if blacks got labor skills. He headed the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, today Tuskegee University. "No race can prosper till it learns that there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a poem."
W.E.B. Du Bois
The first African American to get Harvard doctorate, disagreed with Washington. He founded the Niagara Movement to encourage liberal arts study, believing well-educated future leaders were needed. Calling them the "talented tenth", he wanted to bring elite black leaders into mainstream America. "We are Americans not only by birth and by citizenship, but by our political ideals... and the greatest of those ideas is that ALL MEN ARE CERATED EQUAL."
Bought the New York World, using it to pioneer popular innovations such as a large Sunday edition, comics, sports coverage, and women's news. Selling "sin, sex, and sensation", he worked to outsell his newspaper rival.
William Randolph Hearst
Owned NY and San Francisco papers, often exaggerated stories for effect. Used wild stories of personal scandal, cruelty, hypnotism, and an imaginary conquest of Mars, all to outsell his newspaper rival.
Artist whose style was realism. He studied anatomy with medical students and used complicated geometry to achieve perspective. By the 1880s, he was using photographs of people and animals to make his paintings even more realistic.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens
Better known as "Mark Twain", he rejected high culture, yet wrote American classics that are still part of the American literary canon today.
A political activist and advocate for women and children. She was appointed to chief inspector of factories in Illinois, and with her leadership, helped pass laws prohibiting child labor and limiting women's hours. She also helped form the NAACP.
She transformed the WCTU from a small Midwestern religious group to a national organization with 245,000 members by 1911—the largest women's group in the country's history.
Instead of appeals to legal arguments, this Progressive lawyer cited social science evidence that long work hours had major costs on society. Legal briefs in this method, named after him, would become the model for later reform litigation.
Economics-minded mayor of Detroit, tackling taxes, making the tax structure fairer. He also lowered transit fares for public transit, and rooted out corruption in city government. He set up a work program for the unemployed, building schools, parks, and a city power plant.
Socialist mayor of Cleveland, took on corrupt utilities, firing greedy and corrupt private owners, nationalizing gasworks, waterworks, and transit lines. He held city meetings in large circus tents, and invited the public to question officials on how the city was managed.
Robert M. LaFollette
The "fightin'" 3-term governor of Wisconsin and later, US Senator. He attacked big business, saying that he did not want to smash big business; he just wanted them out of politics and to be treated like any other business or person. His biggest target was the railroad industry, saying that railroads should be taxed at the same rate as other business owners—and he set up a commission to regulate taxes and to stop corrupt payoffs to politicians.