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Acid/Base Balance

Condition that occurs when the net rate at which the body produces acids or bases is equal to the net rate at which acids or bases are excreted


(adj.) shapeless, without definite form; of no particular type or character; without organization, unity, or cohesion


an orange-yellow pigment in the bile that forms as a product of hemoglobin


the presence of bilirubin in the urine


tubular structures found in urine composed mainly of mucoprotein secreted by certain cells of the kidney

Chain of custody

Special strict protocol for forensic specimens that requires detailed documentation tracking the specimen from the time it is collected until the results are reported.

Carcadian Rhythm

sequence of body changes every 24 hours


waste product of muscle metabolism, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and excreted in urine

Critical Values

test results that indicate a potentially life threatening or greatly debilitating situation that must be reported to the provider immediately


Found in normal urine sediment having no particular significance; should be noted because they may indicate disease states.

Culture and sensitivity

a laboratory test in which a sample is removed from an infection and placed in a culture medium in order to identify the type(s) of bacteria and then determine its sensitivity to a variety of antibiotics


Microorganisms cultivated in a nutrient medium. Taken for testing.


the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.


Presence of glucose in the urine


Presence of blood in the urine


Transparent clear. hyaline casts consists of mucuprotein. they are transparent and difficult to see in the urine.


Accumulation of ketones in the body; occuring primarily as a complication of diabetes mellitus; if left untreated, it cause coma


Chemical compound produced during an increased metabolism of fat; also, tesy on a reagent strip.


Having ketones in the urine


A condition of the body burning fatty acids for energy in the absense of the appropriate glucose/carbohydrates. May be referred to as lipolysis

Leukocyte Esterase

Test on a reagent strip that indicates the presence ofwhite blood cells in the urinary tract.

Midstream Collection

Urine sample collected in the middle of a flow of urine


scale that indicates the relative alkalinity or acidity of a solution; measurement of hydrogen ion concentration

Quality Control (QC)

procedures are designed to ensure accuracy and precision of laboratory tests and to discover and eliminate human error. calibration of machines


chemical substances that detects or synthesizes other substances in a chemical reaction

Reagent Test Strip

narrow strip of plastic on which pads containing reagents are attached


an instrument used to measure the refractive index of urine which is an indirect measurement of the specific gravity of urine


Insoluble materials that settles to the bottom of a liquid; material examined in the urinalysis microscopic examination

Specific Gravity

the ratio of the weight of a given volume of solution to the weight of the same volume of distilled water at the same temp test often performed during the urinalysis physical exam and can appear the reagent test strip


urine that appears to be above the sediment when centrifuged; poured off before sediment is examined under the microscope


Opaque, not clear. used to describe urine that is cloudy.


Principle end product of protein metabolism


the physical chemical and microscopic examination of urine and its components

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

The most common of all bacterial infections


colorless compound produced in the intestine after the breakdown by bacteria of bilirubin

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