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mother measures the fetal movements within one hour

sandovsky method

mother records the time interval it takes to feel ten fetal movements

count to ten/ cardiff method

what is the normal fetal heart rate?
- can be heard as early as 12 wks with doppler


<110 bpm for 10 minutes


>160 bpm for 10 minutes


irregularity or fluctuations of fetal heart rate


increase of FHR by 15 bpm above the baseline lasting 15 seconds or longer


decrease of FHR by 15 bpm below the baseline lasting 15 seconds or longer


done just to assess FHR baseline, looking for long and short-term variability

rhythm strip testing

FHR measured in response to fetal movement
- non-invasive, generally done @ 28 wks, similar to fetal heart monitoring

non stress test (NST)

two accelerations of FHR lasting 15 sec occurring after movement - good

reactive NST

no accelerations of the FHR with movement of fetus - not good

non-reactive NST

usually done after NST, invasive
- assess ability of fetus to withstand the stress of uterine contractions, how will the fetus withstand labor?
- performed if NST is abnormal, also if PIH is worsening, only do if ready to deliver the baby
- gain c-section consent forms before

contraction stress test (CST) or oxytocin challenge test (OCT)

represented with no late decelerations of FHR, FHR stays within baseline during test, good sign

negative CST

late decelerations/invariabilities of the FHR for more than half of the contractions, will do c-section, baby would not be able to withstand labor, bad sign

positive CST

suspicious, not quite sure, some decelerations, less than 50%, not often

equivocal CST

inadequate FHR, and less than 3 contractions in 10 minutes

unsatisfactory CST

________ CST indicates that the fetus can survive labor


________ CST indicated that the fetus is unlikely to tolerate labor


Used to determine:
- diagnosis of pregnancy
- confirm presence, size and location of placenta
- presentation and position of fetus
- fetal gross defects


physician inserts a needle into amniotic sac and removes amniotic fluid
- patient has to sign consent form, needs to void before procedure, RhoGAM (if indicated) should be given before procedure
- risks: hemorrhage, infection, puncture of fetus


amniotic fluid should be what color?

clear/ like water

yellow amniotic fluid may indicated what?

blood incompatibility

green amniotic fluid may indicate what?


measures lung maturity of the infant, ratio should be 2:1 or greater

lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio (L/S ratio)

genetic testing for various abnormalities

chromosome analysis

blood test done prenatally (16-18 wks), some Dr's do and some don't, good way to begin to rule out genetic abnormalities, need to have a value somewhere in the middle, may or may not be accurate, serum test

alpha-fetoprotein test (AFP)

____ levels of AFP indicate open spinal (spina bifida) or abdominal defects


___ levels of AFP indicate chromosomal defects

downs syndrome

What are the five parameters of biophysical profile?
- test for preterm delivery

fetal breathing movements
fetal movements
fetal tone
amniotic fluid volume
fetal heart reactivity

biophysical profile score of 8-10 means?


biophysical profile score of 6 means?

satisfactory but be aware

biophysical profile score of 4 or less means?

fetus is compromised

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