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Math
Statistics
Statisitcs Chapter 1
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Terms in this set (35)
The 1.5 x IQR Rule for Outliers
call an observation an outlier if it falls more than 1.5 x IQR above the third quartile or below the first quartile
Association
occurs between two variables if specific values of one variable tend to occur in common with specific values of the other
Bar Graph
Used to display the distribution of a categorical variable of to compare sizes of different quantities. Drawn with blank spaces between to separate the items being compared.
Bimodal
Describes a graph of quantitative date with two clear peaks.
Boxplot
A graph of the 5 number summary.
Categorical Variable
Places an indivisual into one of several groups or categories.
Data Analysis
A process of describing data using graphs and numerical summaries.
Dotplot
A simple graph that shows each data value as a dot above it's location on a number line.
Distribution
Tells what values a variable takes and how often it takes these values.
First Quartile
If the observations in a data set are ordered from lowest to highest, it is the median of the observations whose position is to the left of the median.
The Five-Number Summary
Consists of the smallest observation, the first quartile, the median, the third quartile, and the largest observation, written in order from smallest to largest. In symbols: Minimum Q1 M Q3 Maximum
Frequency Table
Displays the count of observations in each category or class.
Histogram
Displays the distribution of a quantitative variable. Each bar represents an equal width class.
Indivisuals
Objects described by a set of data. They may be people, animals, or things.
Inference
Drawing conclusions that go beyond that data at hand.
Interquartile Range
Q3 minus Q1
Mean
the arithmetic average. add values, divide by # of observations.
Median M
the midpoint of a distribution. the number such that half the observations are smaller and the other half are larger.
Mode
the value or class in a statistical distribution having the greatest frequency.
Multimodal
describes a graph of quantitative date with more than two clear peaks.
Outlier
an indivisual value that falls outside the overall pattern of a distribution.
Pie Chart
shows the distribution of a categorical variable. parts are sized by the counts or percents for the categories. must include all the categories that make up a whole.
Quantitative Variable
takes numerical values for which it makes sense to find an average.
Range
the ____ of a set of quantitative data is the maximum value minus the minimum value.
Relative Frequency Table
shows the percents of observations in each category or class.
Resistant Measure
a statistic that is not affected very much by extreme observations.
Roundoff Error
The difference between the calculated app. of a number and it's exact mathematical value.
Skewness
a distribution is _____ if the right side of the graph is much longer than the left side.
Standard Deviation
measures the average distance of the observations from their mean. calculated by finding an average of the square distances and then taking the square root.
Symmetry
If the right and left sides of a graph are app. mirror images of each other.
Q3
If the observations in a data set are ordered from lowest to highest, it is the median of the observations whose position is to the right of the median.
Two Way Table
This table of counts organizes data about two categorical variables.
Unimodal
Describes a graph of quantitative data with a single peak.
Variables
Any characteristic of an indivisual. A _____ can take different values for different indivisuals.
Variance
The average squared distance of the observations in a data set from their mean.
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