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paracrine communication (local hormones)
use of chemical messengers to transfer information from cell to cell
chemical messengers that travel through nervous system releasing appropriate neural transmitters- short lived- crisis management
(lipid soluble) diffuse across the membrane and binds to receptors within inner surface
nervous system safeguards
nervous system can override normal endocrine controls as necessary to maintain homeostasis
anterior lobe (pituitary gland)
composed of glandular tissue and manufacturing a number of hormones
in the hypothalamus
synthesizes the neurohormones oxytocin and antidiuretic which are transported down the length of axons to the neurohypophysis where they are stored temporarily and released on demand
LH (tropic hormones- gonadotropin)
females: aids in ovulation, release of estrogen and progesterone
male: stimulates production of testosterone
inadequate amount of of ADH; water conservation of the kidney is impaired; excessive amounts of water are lost in urine
regulates tissue and growth development and is critical for normal skeletal and NS development maturation and reproductive capability
made in adrenal cortex; stimulates the conservation of sodium ions and illumination of potassium
keep body adapt to external changes and intermittent food intake by keeping blood sugar levels constant
characterized by the increase of glucocorticoids; excessive breakdown of tissue proteins and lipid reserve, impaired glucose metabolism
depressed levels of glucocorticoids; inability to tolerate stress, mobilized energy reserves or maintain normal glucose levels
male hormones, but adrenal cortex also makes small amount of female hormones
thymopoetin & thymosin (thymus)
aids in normal development of immune responses
declines in function with age
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