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72 terms

Ch. 16 Endocrine System

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direct communication
adjacent cell of same type
gap junction
coordinate ciliary movement along epithelial cells
gap junction
coordinate contraction of cardiac muscle cells
gap junction
facilitates the propagation of action potential from neuron to neuron
paracrine communication (local hormones)
use of chemical messengers to transfer information from cell to cell
endocrine communication
hormones that travel from one tissue and affect another
hormones
chemical messengers released from one tissue and affect other tissues
target cells
specific cells with receptors needed to bind and read hormones
synaptic communication
chemical messengers that travel through nervous system releasing appropriate neural transmitters- short lived- crisis management
endocrine system
secretes hormones
endocrine cells
ductless glands, release hormone directly into blood/lymph
exocrine cells
have ducts through which non-hormonal products flow
endocrine glands
pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal, thymus
endocrine tissue
pancreas, gonads
neuroendocrine organ
hypothalamus
amino acids
based molecules
peptide
chains of amino acids
lipid
steroids, synthesized from cholesterol
free circulating hormone
remains functional for less than one hour or as little as two minutes
hormone sensitivity
cell must have receptors for specific hormones
extracellular receptors
bind to the outer surface of cell membrane
intracellular receptors
(lipid soluble) diffuse across the membrane and binds to receptors within inner surface
endocrine reflexes
functional counter parts of neural reflexes
humoral
changes in composition of extracellular fluid (blood)
hormonal
hormone presence
neural
neural transmitter presence
negative feedback system
corrective mechanism that opposes/negates a variation from normal limits
nervous system safeguards
nervous system can override normal endocrine controls as necessary to maintain homeostasis
posterior lobe (pituitary gland)
neurohypophysis
hormone storage area
anterior lobe (pituitary gland)
adenohypophysis
composed of glandular tissue and manufacturing a number of hormones
neurosecretory cells
in the hypothalamus
synthesizes the neurohormones oxytocin and antidiuretic which are transported down the length of axons to the neurohypophysis where they are stored temporarily and released on demand
antidiuretic
controls water balance
oxytocin
helps with contractions in labor
tropic hormones
regulate hormonal functions of other endocrine glands
TSH (tropic hormones)
thyroid stimulating hormone
controls normal thyroid development
ACTH (tropic hormones)
adenocorticotropic hormone
helps body resist stressors
FSH (tropic hormones- gonadotropin)
follicle stimulating hormone
stimulates gamete production
LH (tropic hormones- gonadotropin)
luteinizing hormone
females: aids in ovulation, release of estrogen and progesterone
male: stimulates production of testosterone
GH (nonendocrine targets)
growth hormone
targets bone and skeletal muscles
PRC (nonendocrine targets)
prolactin hormone
stimulates milk production by breasts
acromegaly
enlarged extremities
diabetes insipidus
inadequate amount of of ADH; water conservation of the kidney is impaired; excessive amounts of water are lost in urine
tasted
test for polyuria
thyroid gland
anterior to the pharynx
thyroid hormone
T3, T4 accelerates cellular metabolism
cellular metabolism
accelerated by thyroid hormone
thyroid hormone
regulates tissue and growth development and is critical for normal skeletal and NS development maturation and reproductive capability
goiter
enlarged thyroid gland
not enough iodine
cretinism
severe hypothyroidism
underactive thyroid
grave's disease
autoimmune disorder that causes the thyroid to become overactive
thyrocalcitonin
calcitonin
depress blood calcium levels
mineralcorticoids
aldosterone
made in adrenal cortex; stimulates the conservation of sodium ions and illumination of potassium
aldosteronism
hypersecretion of aldosterone
increased body weight due to sodium and water retention
glucocorticoids
keep body adapt to external changes and intermittent food intake by keeping blood sugar levels constant
glucogenesis
cortisol's metabolism effect
formation of glucose from noncarb molecules
cushing's
characterized by the increase of glucocorticoids; excessive breakdown of tissue proteins and lipid reserve, impaired glucose metabolism
addison's disease
depressed levels of glucocorticoids; inability to tolerate stress, mobilized energy reserves or maintain normal glucose levels
gonadocorticoids
androgens
male hormones, but adrenal cortex also makes small amount of female hormones
androgenital syndrome
early masculinization
epinephrine (adrenal medulla)
adrenaline
nonepinephrine (adrenal Medulla)
neurotransitter
melatonin (pineal gland)
helps keep body in circadian rhythm
islets of langerhans (pancreas)
clusters of cells that produce pancreatic hormones
glucagon
stimulation the liver to convert glycogen to glucose
hypo
dont have enough
hyper
too much
insulin
increase the rate of glucose uptake and metabolism by body cells
diabetes mellitus
due to hyposecretion of insulin
high blood sugar levels
thymopoetin & thymosin (thymus)
aids in normal development of immune responses
declines in function with age
estrogen
female secondary characteristics
progesterone
pregnancy hormone
testosterone
male secondary characteristics