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direct communication

adjacent cell of same type

gap junction

coordinate ciliary movement along epithelial cells

gap junction

coordinate contraction of cardiac muscle cells

gap junction

facilitates the propagation of action potential from neuron to neuron

paracrine communication (local hormones)

use of chemical messengers to transfer information from cell to cell

endocrine communication

hormones that travel from one tissue and affect another


chemical messengers released from one tissue and affect other tissues

target cells

specific cells with receptors needed to bind and read hormones

synaptic communication

chemical messengers that travel through nervous system releasing appropriate neural transmitters- short lived- crisis management

endocrine system

secretes hormones

endocrine cells

ductless glands, release hormone directly into blood/lymph

exocrine cells

have ducts through which non-hormonal products flow

endocrine glands

pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal, thymus

endocrine tissue

pancreas, gonads

neuroendocrine organ


amino acids

based molecules


chains of amino acids


steroids, synthesized from cholesterol

free circulating hormone

remains functional for less than one hour or as little as two minutes

hormone sensitivity

cell must have receptors for specific hormones

extracellular receptors

bind to the outer surface of cell membrane

intracellular receptors

(lipid soluble) diffuse across the membrane and binds to receptors within inner surface

endocrine reflexes

functional counter parts of neural reflexes


changes in composition of extracellular fluid (blood)


hormone presence


neural transmitter presence

negative feedback system

corrective mechanism that opposes/negates a variation from normal limits

nervous system safeguards

nervous system can override normal endocrine controls as necessary to maintain homeostasis

posterior lobe (pituitary gland)

hormone storage area

anterior lobe (pituitary gland)

composed of glandular tissue and manufacturing a number of hormones

neurosecretory cells

in the hypothalamus
synthesizes the neurohormones oxytocin and antidiuretic which are transported down the length of axons to the neurohypophysis where they are stored temporarily and released on demand


controls water balance


helps with contractions in labor

tropic hormones

regulate hormonal functions of other endocrine glands

TSH (tropic hormones)

thyroid stimulating hormone
controls normal thyroid development

ACTH (tropic hormones)

adenocorticotropic hormone
helps body resist stressors

FSH (tropic hormones- gonadotropin)

follicle stimulating hormone
stimulates gamete production

LH (tropic hormones- gonadotropin)

luteinizing hormone
females: aids in ovulation, release of estrogen and progesterone
male: stimulates production of testosterone

GH (nonendocrine targets)

growth hormone
targets bone and skeletal muscles

PRC (nonendocrine targets)

prolactin hormone
stimulates milk production by breasts


enlarged extremities

diabetes insipidus

inadequate amount of of ADH; water conservation of the kidney is impaired; excessive amounts of water are lost in urine


test for polyuria

thyroid gland

anterior to the pharynx

thyroid hormone

T3, T4 accelerates cellular metabolism

cellular metabolism

accelerated by thyroid hormone

thyroid hormone

regulates tissue and growth development and is critical for normal skeletal and NS development maturation and reproductive capability


enlarged thyroid gland
not enough iodine


severe hypothyroidism
underactive thyroid

grave's disease

autoimmune disorder that causes the thyroid to become overactive


depress blood calcium levels


made in adrenal cortex; stimulates the conservation of sodium ions and illumination of potassium


hypersecretion of aldosterone
increased body weight due to sodium and water retention


keep body adapt to external changes and intermittent food intake by keeping blood sugar levels constant


cortisol's metabolism effect
formation of glucose from noncarb molecules


characterized by the increase of glucocorticoids; excessive breakdown of tissue proteins and lipid reserve, impaired glucose metabolism

addison's disease

depressed levels of glucocorticoids; inability to tolerate stress, mobilized energy reserves or maintain normal glucose levels


male hormones, but adrenal cortex also makes small amount of female hormones

androgenital syndrome

early masculinization

epinephrine (adrenal medulla)


nonepinephrine (adrenal Medulla)


melatonin (pineal gland)

helps keep body in circadian rhythm

islets of langerhans (pancreas)

clusters of cells that produce pancreatic hormones


stimulation the liver to convert glycogen to glucose


dont have enough


too much


increase the rate of glucose uptake and metabolism by body cells

diabetes mellitus

due to hyposecretion of insulin
high blood sugar levels

thymopoetin & thymosin (thymus)

aids in normal development of immune responses
declines in function with age


female secondary characteristics


pregnancy hormone


male secondary characteristics

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