By age 2, typically a child weighs about ____ and measures ____. The typical two year old is almost ____ percent of his or her adult weight and ____ percent of their height.
30 lbs; between 32-36 in.; 15-20; 50
When nutrition is temporarily inadequite, the body stops growing but the brain does not. This is called ______-_____.
A standard, or average, measurments that is calculated for a specific group or population is a ______.
To compare a childs growth to that of other children, we determine a ______, a point on a ranking scale of ______ to ___.
percentile; 0; 100
Throughout childhood, regular and ample ____ correlates with _____ maturation, ____, _____, regulation, and _______ adjustments in school and within the family.
sleep; brain; learning, emotional, psychological
Over the first months of life, the relative amount of time spent in the different _______ of sleep changes. The stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind closed lids and _______ is called ______ ____. During the stage of sleep, brain waves are fairly _____ over the first months, as does the dozing stage called ____ ___. Slow wave sleep, also called ____ ____, increases markedly at about ____ months of age.
stages; dreaming; REM sleep; rapid;decrease; traditional sleep; quiet sleep; quiet sleep; 3 or 4
In most western cultures children _______ sleep with their parents. In contrast parents in ____ ____ and ____ ____ traditionally practice ____ with their infants. This practice ____ seem to be harmful unless the adult is _________.
do not; Asia; Africa; Latin America; co-sleeping; does not; drugged or drunk
Two year old rafael weighs 30 lbs and is 34 inches tall. He is considered average because his height and weight are in the ____ percentile for 2 year olds.
At birth the brain has attained about ____ percent of its adult weight , by age two the brain is about _____ percent of its adult weight. In comparison body weight at age two is about ______ percent of what it will be in adulthood.
25; 75; 20
The brains communication system consists primarily of nerve cells called __________ which are connected by intricate networks of nerve fibers called _______ and ______. Some nerve cells are in the area that controls autonomic responses called the ____________. About percent of these cells are in the brains outer layer calle the ______. This area takes up about _____ percent of human brain materials and is the site of ________ , ______, and __________.
neurons; axons; dendrites; brain stem; 70; cortex; 80; thinking; feeling; sensing
Neurons communicate with one another at sections called _____ that carry information across ______ _____ to the _____ of a recieving neuron which is speeded up by a process called _______ . Most of the nerve cells _____ present at birth, whereas there are ______ fiber networks.
synapsas; axon; neurotransmitters;synoptic gap; dendrite; myelination; are; far fewer
From birth until age 2, the density of dendrites in the cortex ______ by a factor of _____. The phenominal increases in neural connections over the first two years has been called ____ ____.Following this growth process, some neurons wither in this process called ______ because ____ does not activate those brain areas. The importance of early experience is seen in the brains production of stress hormones such as ____.
increases; five; transiet exuberance; pruning; experience; cortisol
Brain functions that require basic common experiences in order to develop normally are called _____-_____ brain functions; those that depend on particular, and variable experiences in order to develop are called ______-_____ brain functions. Between 6-24 months the _____ areas of the brain develop most rapidly. The last part of the brain to mature is ____ ___, which is the area for ___ ____ and ____ _____.
experience -expectsnt; experience-dependent; language; prefrontal cortex; anticipation; planning impulse control
A life threatening condition that occurs when an infant is held by the shoulders and quickly shaken back and forth is ___ ___ ___. Crying stops because of ruptured ______ _____ in the brain and broken _____ connections.
shaken baby syndrome; blood vessels; neural
An important implication of brain development for caregivers is that early brain growth is _____ and reflects ____. Another is that each part of the brain has its own _____ for _____ _____ and ______. The inborn drive to remedy any deficit that may occur in development is called _____.
rapid; experience; sequence; growth; connecting;pruning; self-writing