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Central Processing Unit


Program control, arithmetic, data movement


locates and executes program instructions


Millions of transistors


Has RAM, ROM and Secondary Storage


Random Access Memory (Read and write memory)


Read Only Memory (contains certain program that must always be present)


The hard drive (provides persistent storage)

Secondary Storage

Set of electrical lines that connect CPU, RAM, slots and other connectors


Holds CPU, memory, bus, card slots


Includes display, printer, mouse, keyboard, speakers, modem


allow computer to talk to other devices (central data storage, printer, other comps)


Extremely primitive, encoded as numbers, thousands of instructions

Machine Instructions

use computer to translate, assigns short names to commands, makes reading easier, translated into machine instructions, processor dependent


Easiest to read and write, translated by compilers into machine instructions,, independent of underlying hardware

Higher Level Languages

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
cout << "Hello, World!\n";
return 0;

Compile a Simple Program

main function

int main ()

end of main function (0 signals successful program run)


escape character


stdout object


send to operator


faulty input, not quite legal C++, compiler finds errors

syntax errors

program doesn't do what its supposed to do and harder to find

Logic or Run-time Error

result is outside computer's numeric range

Overflow and Roundoff Errors

Validating program correctness, important


find source of error


crafting programs to limit, minimize, localize errors

defensive programming

shield user from compilation details (enter code in window, click button to compile, click another to run)

Integrated Desktop Environments

Compiler translates your C++ source into object code, linker takes object files and code from various libraries, outputs as executable file, libraries contain translated code

Compilation Process

unambiguous, executable, and terminating


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