Psychology Chapters 1 & 2
Terms in this set (86)
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Includes all of our outward or overt actions and reactions, such as talking, facial expressions, and movement.
All the internal, covert activity of our minds, such as thinking, feeling, and remembering.
Personal judgments based on beliefs rather than facts.
Type of research method used to study psychology.
Description, Explanation, Prediction, and Control
The goals of psychology:
What is happening? Involves observing a behavior and noting everything about it and what is happening.
Why is it happening? When researches try and find a way to understand and express why something is happening.
A general explanation of a set of observations or facts.
When will it happen again? Determining what will happen in the future.
How can it be changed? Changing a behavior from an undesirable one to a desirable one.
A physiologist who attempted to apply scientific principles to the study of the human mind in a laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879.
Believed that consciousness could be broken down into thoughts, experiences, emotions, and other basic elements.
Physiologist behind objective introspection.
The process if objectively examining and measuring ones own thoughts and mental activities.
Objective Introspection- Wundt
The first attempt by anyone to bring objectivity and measurement to the concert of psychology.
One of Wundt's students who expanded on Wundt's original ideas, calling his new viewpoint structuralism.
Titchner; focus of study on the structure of the mind.
Believed that every experience could be broken down into individual emotions and sensations.
Believed that objective introspection could be used on thoughts as well as on physical sensations.
Margaret F. Washburn
One of Titchners students, she first woman to receive a PH. D in psychology. She published a book on animal behavior.
Taught psychology at Harvard.
Interested in the importance of consciousness to everyday life rather than just its analysis.
Believed that the scientific study of the consciousness was not possible.
James focus on how people work, play and adapt to their surroundings.
Observed the saliva reflex in dogs.
Ignored the consciousness and focus only on observable behavior.
Believed that phobias are learned through the process of conditioning.
He did the experiment "Little Albert", and taught fear through conditioning.
Wanted to prove that all behavior was a result of a stimulus.
Mary Cover Jones
A student of Watson who repeated his "Little Albert" experiment. She began something called counterconditioning.
Has no medical training but has a doctorate degree.
Has a medical degree and can prescribe medicine.
Percieving the Question, Forming a Hypothesis, Testing the Hypothesis, Drawing Conclusions, and Report your Results
The 5 Steps in the Scientific Method:
The tendency to notice only things that agree with their view of the world.
Observing animals or humans in their natural habitats.
When animals or humans know they are being watched and do not behave normally.
When researchers become participants in the experiment to prevent the observer effect.
When the person doing the observing has a particular opinion about what they expect to see.
When one individual is studied in great detail, researchers try to learn everything they can about that individual.
Researchers will ask a series of questions about the topic they are studying.
A sample of people for a survey or experiment that randomly chooses people that represent the specific population.
Receives either a placebo or nothing in the experiment.
The variable that in manipulated in any experiment.
What is measured in the experiment.
When the expectations of the experimenter effects the experiment.
A branch of the life sciences that deals with the structure and functioning of the brain and the neurons, nerves, and nervous tissue that form the nervous system.
The specialized cell in the nervous system that receives and sends messages within the system.
The parts of the neuron that receive messages from other cells.
A fiber attached to the soma, its job is to carry messages out to other cells.
Responsible for communicating with other nerve cells.
Glial Cells and Neurons
Two types of cells that make up the nervous system:
Proteins that allows only particular molecules of a certain shape to fit into it.
Afferent (sensory) Neurons
Neurons that carry messages from the senses to the spinal cord.
Efferent (motor) Neurons
Neurons that carry messages away from the spinal cord to the muscles and glands.
Neurons that connect the afferent neurons to the motor neurons. These makeup the inside of the spinal cord and much of the brain.
Peripheral Nervous System
Made up of all the nerves and and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord. This system allows the brain and spinal cord to communicate with the sensory systems of the eyes, skin, ears and mouth, and allows the brain and spinal cord to control the muscles and glands of the body.
Made up of the sensory and the motor pathways.
All the nerves carrying messages from the senses to the central nervous system.
All of the nerves carrying messages from the central nervous system to the voluntary muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System
Divided into two systems: they sympathetic and parasympathetic
The Sympathetic Division
"Fight or Flight" system; allows people and animal to deal with stressful events.
The Parasympathetic Division
"Eat, Drink, Rest" system; returns the body to normal functioning after a stressful situation. Also responsible for everyday functioning, breathing, heartbeat, and digestion.
An electrical current strong enough to kill of the target neuron is sent through the tip of the wire inserted into the brain
Controls life sustaining functions such as heartbeat, breathing and swallowing. Where the sensory nerves cross over from left to right.
Coordinates the movements of the left and right side of the body. Influences sleep, dreaming, and arousal.
Plays a role in our learning, memory, and ability to compare sensory information to expectations.
Regulates other endocrine glands.
Regulates the amount of fear, thirst, sexual drive, and aggression we feel.
Connects left and right hemispheres of the brain.
Controls complex thought processes.
Relays information from sensory organs to the cerebral cortex.
Controls balance and maintains muscle coordination.
A system of nerves running from the hindbrain and through the midbrain to the cerebral cortex, controlling arousal and attention.
The Limbic System
Includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and the cingulate cortex. Involved in emotions, memory, motivation, and learning.
Involved in fear responses and memory of fear.
A think, tough band of neural fibers that connect the two sections of the cerebral hemispheres.
Occipital, Parietal, Temporal, and Frontal
The name of the four lobes
This lobe processes visual information from the eyes.
Side of the brain that controls reading, analysis of detail, logical thought processes, mathematical calculations, written language, spoken language and the right hand.
Side of the brain that is nonverbal, music and artistic processing, emotional thought and recognition, visual-spatial perception, and controls the left hand