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Chap 1 Science Exam_Cook
Terms in this set (72)
What is an element?
An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
Can an organic molecule (one that only contains carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen) be a...
Protein: No. A protein also contains Nitrogen.
How is a compound different from an element?
The difference between an element and a compound is that an element is a substance made of same type of atoms, whereas a compound is made of different elements in definite proportions. An element cannot be broken down where a compound can be broken down.
A molecule of ammonia consists of one atom of nitrogen and 3 atoms of hydrogen. Is ammonia an element or a compound?
Ammonia is a compound because it has more than one element bonded together. Ammonia is made up of more than 1 element and therefore it is a compound.
What are the four types of organic molecules found in living things?
Nucleic Acids (DNA, RNA)
Which of the four types of organic molecules contain the element nitrogen?
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
What three important functions does water perform in cells?
1. Helps cells kept their size and shape
2. it helps the cell not change its temperature
3. most chemical reactions in cells involve substances that are dissolved in water
Suppose a cell is seriously deprived of water. How might this lack of water affect the cell's enzymes? Explain.
The chemical reactions necessary for life would not occur or slow it down.
Water is utilized by enzymes to change molecules necessary for certain bodily processes.
How much of the human body is composed of water?
What are cells?
Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. Cells form the part of an organism and carry out all of an organisms processes or functions.
What is a microscope?
A microscope is an instrument that makes small objects look larger.
Who is Robert Hooke?
One of the first people to observe cells. He built his own microscope.
Who is Anton van Leeuwenhoek?
He also began to look at tiny objects with microscopes.
What does cell theory say?
1. all living things are composed of cells.
2. cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.
3. all cells are produced from other cells.
What does a lense in a light microscope do?
the lenses in light microscopes magnify an object by bending the light that passes through them.
What is an electron microscope?
An electron microscope uses a beam of electrons instead of light to produce a magnified image.
What are electrons?
Tiny particles that are smaller than atoms.
tiny cell structures that carry out specific functions within the cell.
Define: cell wall
a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms. A plants cell wall helps to protect and support the cell.
What kind of cells have cell walls?
ONLY PLANT CELLS!!!
Define: Cell Membrane
the cell membrane controls what substances come into and out of a cell.
What kind of cells have cell membranes?
PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS
"the brain of the cell"
the cells control center, directing all of the cells activities
thin strands that float in the nucleus that contain genetic material and instructions for directing the cells functions.
where ribosomes are made
the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus. Many organelles are found in the cytoplasms
the powerhouses of the cell because they convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its functions.
the ER passageways carry proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another.
function as factories to produce proteins. Where proteins are made.
"the cells mail room"
receive proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, package them, and distribute them to other parts of the cell.
capture energy from the sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell.
What kind of cells have chloroplasts?
ONLY PLANT CELLS
storage areas of cells.
small, round, structures containing chemicals that break down certain materials in the cell.
How are cells organized in many celled organisms?
they are organized into tissues, organs, and organ systems.
Describe a bacterial cell.
A bacterial cell does have a cell wall and a cell membrane, but its does not contain a nucleus. The bacterial cells genetic material, which looks like a thick, tangled string, is found in the cytoplasm.
any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
when 2 or more elements combine chemically, they form a compound.
What is Carbon Dioxide?
a compound made up of carbon and oxygen.
What is the smallest unit of many compounds?
energy-rich organic compound made up of the elements:
What is another name for a carbohydrate?
energy-rich organic compounds made of:
Which contains more energy: lipids or carbohydrates?
What is another name for a lipid?
large organic molecules made of:
and in some cases also sulfur
What are protein molecules made up of?
they are made up of smaller molecules called amino acids.
How many common amino acids are there?
What is the simplest unit of a protein?
an amino acid
Amino acids make up proteins.
a type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing. without enzymes, chemical reactions would take too long or not occur at all.
very long organic molecules made of:
Nucleic acids contain the instructions that cells need to carry out all of the functions of life
What are the 2 kinds of nucleic acids?
DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid: a genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.
RNA: ribonucleic acid: plays an important role in the production of proteins. RNA Is found in the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
Most chemical reactions within cells _______ take place without water.
A cell membrane is ______________.
Semi permeable: this means that some substance can pass through the membrane while others cannot.
the main method by which small molecules move across the cell membrane.
The process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
What causes diffusion?
collisions between molecules.
the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane. because cells cannot function properly without adequate water, many cellular processes depend on osmosis.
Molecules tend to move from an area of _________ concentration to an area of ___________ concentration.
HIGHER TO LOWER
the movement of dissolved materials through a cell membrane without using cellular energy.
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using cellular energy. requires the cell to use its own energy, while passive transport does not.
proteins that pick up molecules outside the cell and carry them in, using energy.
another method of active transport. cell membrane surrounds and engulfs or encloses a particle.
All living things are composed of:
In plant and animal cells, the control center of the cell is the:
D. Golgi Body
A storage compartment of the cell is the
A. cell wall
C. endoplasmic reticulum
Starch is an example of a:
A. nucleic acid
The process by which water moves across a cell membrane is called:
B. active transport
T or F. Cells were discovering using electron microscopes.
FALSE. A compound microscope was the first microscope used by Robert Hooke to discover cells.
T or F: ribosomes produce proteins.
T or F: The cells of plants and animals lack nulcei.
T or F: Both DNA and RNA are proteins.
FALSE. they are nucleic acids.
T or F. The cell membrane is selectively permeable.
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