Neural crest cell migration failure is the cause of Tetralogy of Fallot, Truncus Arteriosus, and Transposition of the Great Vessels. What process does the this migration fail in? And which structures do they fail to migrate to?
Atrioventricular Septum Late Pulmonary Hypertension
Embryologically, Endocardial Cushion defects lead to congenital defects in what structure? Will this cause early or late cyanosis? What must develop for cyanosis to occur via a right to left shunt?
anterior cerebral artery
This artery supplies the medial portion of the hemispheres
Presentation: Blood pressure discrepancy between upper and lower extremities. What is the diagnosis?
distal to left subclavian artery
In aorta coarctation, where does the compression occur usually?
microvessel dilation adenosine dipyridamole
"Coronary Steal" phenomenon refers to a redistribution of coronary blood flow away from ischemic areas. Anatomically what is this due to? Pharmacologically, what drugs can achieve this?
Ataxia Telangiectasia DNA repair Combined Immune Deficiency Hematologic Malignancy
Presentation: "Superficial blanching nests of distended capillaries"; Recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections; cerebellar ataxia.
What is the diagnosis? What is defective? What are the secondary diseases to this defect?
A 10X overdose of what vitamin causes cirrhosis?
This organism does the following reaction: sucrose->dextroxe. Dextrose=adherence to fibrin. Thus, the organism lives at sites of trauma.
What is Lesch Nyhan syndrome essentially a failure of?
Pb2+ hypochromic anemia
What toxicology inhibits Mitochondrial Fe2+ transport? How does this manifest?
Uroporphyrinogen in urine. Mild photosensitivity. What is the diagnosis? What is the defective enzyme?
ALA dehydratase Ferrochelatase ALA Protoporphyrin IX
In the Heme Synthesis pathway, which enzymes are inhibited by Pb2+? What will build up?
ALA synthase glucose heme
What is the rate limiting enzyme in Heme synthesis? What inhibits this enzyme?
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine
Regarding Heme synthesis, what is the cofactor for ALA synthase?
Alcohol Barbiturate Hypoxia
Regarding Heme synthesis, what activates the rate limiting enzyme ALA synthase?
Regarding Heme synthesis, which enzyme contains zinc?
neural tube defects
Teratogenicity of Valproate
Teratigenicity of lithium
Ebstein anomaly Lithium
"Atrialized" right ventricle due to downward tricuspid valve displacement. What defect? What cause?
ACE inhibitor Thiazide diuretic
1st dose hypotension occurs as a result of the vasodilative effect of the administered drug with the background hypovolemia from another drug. What is the administered drug? What is the background drug?
Duodenal atresia. What congenital disease?
On the 1st day of life a baby has bilious vomiting with NO ABDOMINAL DISTENTION. What is the diagnosis?
Bicuspid Aortic Valve Turner Syndrome
What are the congenital associations with Aorta Coarctation?
Lead Time Bias
Study error: Patients seem to live longer only because disease is detected earlier by test method than by conventional method.
Lead Time Bias
Artificial increase in survival time among tested patients who actually have an unchanged prognosis.
What type of vaccine is the Rabies vaccine?
Measurement Bias Observer Bias
Study Error: Misclassification via mislabeling populations, etc
CREST is due to anti centromere antibodies. What does CREST stand for?
IgM anti M protein crossreacts with: -Heart glycoprotein -Joint glycoprotein
Joint paint + heart murmur. What disease?
Acute Tubular Necrosis Vasoconstriction
Cyclosporine; Tacrolimus nephrotoxicity manifests as what? This is secondary to what?
AIDS patient being treated for CMV Retinitis develops severe neutropenia. What drug? What drug if already administered, would exclude prescription of this CMV drug (on account of being bone marrow suppressive)?
Pyrophosphate analog CMV Retinitis drug
AIDS patient being treated for CMV Retinitis develops seizures. What drug?
antiviral drug. Patient develops delerium and tremor. What drug?
antiviral drug. Crystal nephropathy. Neurotoxic.
AIDS drugs. Fat redistribuition and insulin resistance.
K+ sparing diuretic CS CCD
Triamterene is of what drug class? Where, anatomically, does it act?
What is the major danger of aggressive osmotic diuretic therapy?
Afferent arteriole or Efferent arteriol: Preferential action by AT2 (vasoconstriction)
Needle shaped. Negative birefringence w polarized light.
Procainamide can induce SLE-like syndrome. Will this involve the kidney?
Drug of choice for mucormycosis
A patient is taking an antifungal and develops normocytic normochromic anemia. What drug?
What loop diuretic has the greatest ototoxicity? Loop diuretic ototoxicity is believe to by due to the presence of Na+K+2Cl- symporter in the ear. Usually ototoxicity occurs when used in conjunction with an aminoglycoside (someone with a UTI and Pulmonary Edema).
Enzyme needed for the production of aqueous humor
Acyclovir is nephrotoxic. It crystalizes when its concentration>solubility. What is the best pretreatment to prevent this from happening?
Pre-treatment in lymphoma and leukemia to prevent tumor lysis syndrome
Pre-treatment for Radiocontrast imaging studies. Decreases allergic reaction to radiocontrast.
hypocalcemia hypokalemia hypomagnesemia
What are the most COMMON side effects of loop diuretics?
Where is carbonic anhydrase located in the kidney?
CNS eye GI Pancreas Proximal tubule RBC
Where in the body is carbonic anhydrase located?
Multi chain complex T cell marker
CD14 TLR4 coreceptor
Monocyte; Macrophage marker
A patient cannot retrieve an object with his right hand that he is palpating with his left hand. Where is the lesion?
X factor hematin V factor NAD+ S. aureus
Haemophilus influenzae is a blood loving organism. It cannot be grown on sheeps agar however, unless it is in the presence of another organism. This organism is hemolytic. What nutrient does H. influenzae attain through the hemolysis of RBCs by this organism? What nutrient does H. influenzae attain directly from this organism? What is the organism?