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Politics of the United States
Poli 101 Midterm
Terms in this set (57)
Ability of government to respond effectively to change, make decisions efficiently and responsibility, and manage conflict
Exit, voice, and loyalty model
Exit: option to leave a place for another with better opportunities
Voice: staying where you are but actively searching to make it better
Loyalty: satisfaction with place of residence
Inputs (policies), political systems, outputs
Domestic migration flows
16% of Americans move every year.
Fastest growing states are in the midwest.
Nevada grew by 45%. Georgia was fastest growing southern state.
Moving to less crowded parts of the country. Away from west coast and frost-belt.
International migration flows
About 1 million Americans arrive every year (CA, NY, FL).
System of government in which powers are divided between central (national) and regional (state) governments
Based on democracy and rule of the people
Halfway between a confederacy and a unitary government
A statute or regulation that requires a state or local government to perform certain actions, with no money provided for fulfilling the requirements
One in which supreme government authority is derived from a central government; no sharing of powers
A league of sovereign states in which a limited central government exercises a few independent powers (what it was before the Constitution)
Powers residing with the states by virtue of the 10th amendment; ex: marriage, driving, state taxes, education
(1791) Powers not explicitly written down in the Constitution
U.S. Supreme Court as "umpire of the federal system"
Federalism divides the powers of government, and conflicts frequently arise between national and state governments. By settling such disputes, the federal court system, particularly the Supreme Court, plays a key role as an umpire for our federal system.
Delegating of power/programs from the federal government to state and local
Rights granted under state constitutions
right to vote?
(1787-1932) Responsibilities/activities of the national and state governments are separate and distinct; compact theory
(1933-1964) Stresses the linkage and joint arrangements among the 3 levels of government; measured in governmental finances
(1964-now) Many new grants-in-aid, including direct national-local financial arrangements, were made; model of cooperative federalism
Federal government determines the needs of the states
Intergovernmental transfer of funds or other assets, subject to conditions
Form of financial aid from 1 level of government to another to be used for a narrowly defined purpose
Form of financial aid from 1 level of government to another for use in a broad, functional area
Funding mechanism that automatically allocates monies based on conditions in the recipient government
Funding mechanism that awards monies based on the strength of an applicant government's proposal
National laws take precedent over state laws
Amount of people who vote of the registered population
Alabama Literacy Test
A tool used to deny suffrage mainly to African Americans during segregation. Blacks were given the version of the test that asked hard questions, required someone to come with you and vouch for you, and if you passed they printed your name and address in the newspaper for the KKK to see and track you down (test we took in class)
Taking away the right of convicted felons to vote, permanently or for a defined period of time.
Strict photo voter ID laws
Partisan issue. Minorities are disproportionately affected by voter ID laws. Not everyone has these kinds of ID's, not everyone has access or resources to obtain them.
Minorities tend to vote Democratic, and the Republican party has been a large driving force behind voter ID laws.
Convenience voting laws
Laws that expand/encourage people to vote Increases accessibility, ease of the process, generally cuts down on hurdles to vote.
Same-day registration, absentee voting for no reason, early voting centers, mail-in elections
Inconvenient voting laws
Photo ID, shortening early voting periods, stop Sunday voting, (FL) stop 3rd party voter registration drives, (ME) stopped same-day voter registration
Motor voter law
The law expanded voting rights by requiring state governments to offer voter registration opportunities to any eligible person who applies for or renews a driver's license. This increases voter registration because it is easy! However, voter turnout has declined because not everyone who is registered goes out and votes (not as easy!)
Vote on the same day you register to vote. This promotes a larger voter turnout.
Voting age population
Adults 18 years of age and older
Voting eligible population
Voting age population excluding those who are noncitizens, convicted felons, or mentally incompetent, depending on state law
Government that allows legislative action initiated by the general public
The general public proposing legislation. Direct: the public draft the legislation and put it up for a vote to institute it. Indirect: the public propose it and the legislation drafts it.
The public votes on a bill that the legislature has already passed in order to decide whether to remove it or leave it on the books.
Allows citizens to vote elected officials out of office before their terms have expired
Role of money (in initiative/recall)
Pay firms to get signatures
Initiatives that have specific words in them that negate or oppose the true purpose of the initiative, putting in place the reverse policy or a poorer one
"Gun behind the door" strategy
According to Woodrow Wilson, just the threat of an initiative could cause the legislators to act.
Voters decide which party's primary they will participate in
Only voters registered in the party are allowed to vote
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Law that effectively enfranchised racial minorities by giving the national government the power to decide whether individuals are qualified to vote and to intercede in state and local electoral operations when necessary
Responsible party model
Political parties have distinct platforms which they should carry out when their members get elected.
Believes that there are clear ideological/philosophical differences between the parties.
Parties accept responsibility related to the government's performance while they are in charge.
Candidates take responsibility for the performance of government once elected.
Resulting from a state that offers credible candidates from both the Democrats and the Republicans for state office. This increased competition leads to more progressive policies.
An important attitude that influences the vote.
Most voters identify with one of the two major political parties, and these basic partisan loyalties influence the vote
Not consistently voting for candidates from one party across the board on a ballot
When executive and legislative branch are controlled by opposing parties
When executive and legislative branch are controlled by the same party
Media market penetration
NJ gets info from NY Times and Philadelphia Inquirer
State capital in a big city: Boston Globe, Indianapolis Star, Des Moines Register
State capital in a remote location: Juneau (capital) is way far out from concentrated population of Alaska
Process by which groups and individuals attempt to influence policy makers
Individuals band together and contact a public official directly
Types of organized interests
PACs (Political Action Committees): organizations that raise and distribute campaign funds to candidates for elective office; candidates rely on their partisan base and compete for the swing vote
527 groups: nonprofit, tax-exempt, political organizations set up to accept contributions and make expenditures in campaigns, although not explicitly connected to candidates
Ethics laws governing lobbyist-legislator interactions
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