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Terms in this set (15)
What are indications for mechanical ventilation?
Respiratory failure or arrest
Trauma (Chest trauma or spinal cord injury)
Correct respiratory acidosis
Maximize oxygen transfer
Brain injury and ICP
What does the ventilator do for the lungs?
Increases lung volume
Decrease O2 demand that occurred due to increased work of breathing
Redistribute fluid from alveolar to interstitial space
What is rate?
The set number of breaths the machine gives per minute
What is fraction of inspired air?
Percentage of oxygen in air delivered to patient
What is tidal volume?
The amount of air given in each breath
What are the two volume based mechanical ventilation settings?
What are the five pressure controlled mechanical ventilation settings?
Assisted Volume Control
Delivers set tidal volume and a set rate
Allows the patient to take spontaneous breath
Spontaneous breaths receive the entire preset tidal volume
Can cause hyperventilation
Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation
Delivers a number of breaths at preset tidal volume to ensure a minimum number of breaths at an adequate tidal volume
Patients can breathe on their own but only achieve the tidal volume they inspired on their own
Delivers a set pressure with inspiration to achieve a desired tidal volume
Can vary as patients airway resistance or compliance changes
Delivers pressure with spontaneous breaths as well as set rate breaths
Awkward for patients who are not sedated.
Pressure regulated volume control
Breaths can be: Ventilator initiated or patient initiated
Constant pressure applied throughout inspiration regardless of whether breath is a control breath or an assist breath.
Ventilator adjusts breath to breath as patients airway resistance and respitory system compliance changes in order to deliever the set tidal volume
Mode in which patient has total spontaneous breaths but has additional pressure during the entire cycle to increase air flow through the vent tubing and artificial airway. To decrease work of breathing caused by narrow airway
Can be used with SIMV
Commonly used in weaning mode
Positive End Expiratory pressure
Pressure mimics the pressure left in the lungs by the closure of the glottis
Keeps alveoli open during exhalation to promote gas exchange and decrease amount of air left in the lungs at the end of expiration
Usually set at 5-10 cm
Levels above 10 cm increase risk of alveolar rupture. pneumothorax and decreased cardiac output
Used in adjunct or weaning mode
Continuous Positive airway pressure
Term used when PEEP is supplied during spontaneous breathing
Delivers a constant positive airway pressure for clients who breathe spontaneously
Can be used for intubated or non intubated
Bi Level Positive airway pressure
Non invasive form of ventilation
Provides two levels of pressure
Insipratory pressure > Expiratory pressure
Spontaneous and timed
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