• Abstract: Provides a concise summary of the article. It is about 120 words long. It briefly talks about the hypotheses, method, and major results.
• Introduction: Explains the topic of the study, the theoretical and empirical background for the research, and specific research questions, goals, or hypotheses for the currant study.
• Method: Explains in detail how the researchers conducted their study. Contains subsections such as Participants, Materials, Procedure, and Apparatus.
• Results: Describes the quantitative and qualitative results of the study, including the statistical tests the authors used to analyze the data. Usually provides tables and figures to summarize key results.
• Discussion: summarizes the study's research question and methods and indicates ho well the data supported the hypotheses. The authors usually then promote their study's contributions and significance.
• Reference List: Contains a full bibliographic listing of all of the articles the authors cited in writing their article, acknowledging previous work in the field and enabling interested readers to locate these studies.
2nd EditionDavid G Myers
Spencer A. Rathus
3rd EditionDavid G Myers