Mastering A&P CH 5 & 6
Terms in this set (85)
Flat bones such as the bones of the skull form via __________.
The large, multinucleated cells responsible for bone resorption are called __________.
What tissue serves as the model for bones formed during endochondral ossification?
The top side of this epiphyseal plate LM image is the __________.
Relatively inactive bone cells that help to maintain the ECM are:
The long, tubular shaft of a long bone is called __________.
What is the last process to occur in the epiphyseal plate?
The small, fluid-filled cavity occupied by an osteocyte is called a(n):
Bone cells that are found in the endosteum and periosteum and build bone are called __________.
Cells that develop into osteoblasts are:
What prompts the closure of the epiphyseal plate around age 18-21?
ossification of the zone of proliferation
The major organic component of bone extracellular matrix is __________.
What canals connect lacunae together?
Which of the following is an effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?
It stimulates the intestines to absorb calcium.
Which of the following events does NOT happen during endochondral ossification?
Mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts.
Bone deposition involves __________.
Which of the following hormones is currently thought to decrease plasma calcium levels in pregnant women and children?
PTH promotes the formation of which hormone?
Which of the following would NOT be a way that parathyroid hormone (PTH) could alter plasma calcium levels? (Which one of the following is FALSE?)
increase osteoblasts on bone
Which hormone works directly in the intestine to increase plasma calcium levels?
Why are collagen fibers a critical component of bone?
Collagen fibers help bone resist torsion.
The structural units of mature compact bone are called:
Which cells participate in the process of bone deposition?
True or False? All bone growth completely stops by the end of adolescence.
Why is articular cartilage necessary for long bones?
Articular cartilage allows bones to rub together with reduced friction at joints.
Branching "ribs" of bone present in spongy bone are known as:
How would the removal of hydroxyapatite crystals from bone matrix affect the physical properties of a bone?
The bone would be more flexible.
What stimulates the release of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?
low blood calcium ion levels
Within the epiphyseal plate, which zone houses actively dividing cartilage cells in their lacunae?
zone of proliferation
In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows:
by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis.
What accounts for the majority of bone (osseous) tissue matrix?
Appositional growth allows bones to __________.
grow in width
Which of the following happens closest to the diaphysis of a bone that is growing in length?
Calcified cartilage is replaced with bone.
The layers of bone tissue immediately deep to the periosteum are:
What structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length?
Predict the effect of growth hormone deficiency during childhood.
Small cavities that are located between lamellae and contain osteocytes are called __________.
What type of bone is adapted to withstand stresses arriving from many directions?
Bone is the most important storehouse in the body for:
Osteoblasts are to bone deposition as:
osteoclasts are to bone resorption.
Osteogenesis imperfecta is a congenital bone disease caused by a collagen deficiency. Which of the following would be a symptom of osteogenesis imperfecta?
What vitamin deficiency causes rickets in children?
Squamous cell carcinoma arises from:
keratinocytes in stratum spinosum.
Predict which of the following regions of the body will have predominantly thick skin.
What symptom distinguishes a second-degree from a third-degree burn?
lack of initial pain associated with the third-degree burn
True or False? Hairs grow from cells in the matrix of the root that are still undergoing keratinization.
The most numerous cells of the epidermis are the __________.
Skin without keratin would be more likely to:
tear upon being mechanically stressed.
What is the most common type of skin cancer, which results in the formation of a nodule with a central "crater" that ulcerates?
basal cell carcinoma
Glands that release sweat into hair follicles are called __________.
apocrine sweat glands
How long will it take for a suntan to fade?
40 to 50 days
If you administer a subcutaneous injection, the needle will penetrate the layers in which of the following orders, starting from the skin surface?
epidermis, papillary layer of dermis, reticular layer of dermis, subcutaneous layer
What stimulates the secretion of sebum?
Tommy fell and skinned his knee. The scrape did not bleed. He must have only damaged the:
Which of the following statements about third- degree burns is INCORRECT?
Third-degree burns decrease perspiration, so there is no danger of dehydration.
Exposure to UV radiation causes the skin to darken by increasing the production of:
The epidermis is:
keratinized cutaneous membrane.
Dividing stem cells that give rise to keratinocytes are located in the __________.
What is the thicker, coarser, more pigmented hair found on the scalp?
Where are the stem cells of the epidermis located?
Trauma to stratum basale would NOT interfere with the skin's ability to:
shed dead cells.
Hair growth occurs at the __________.
What part of the hair dies in response to hormones, such as testosterone, in male pattern baldness?
A patient arrives in your clinic with a sunburn that affects the epidermis only. Her skin appears red and is mildly painful. You believe she has a:
True or False? Vesicles known as melanosomes are taken into the cytosol of keratinocytes by endocytosis. The melanosome is transported to the superficial side of the keratinocyte to shield its nucleus.
A callus may develop when both thin and thick skin are subjected to repeated pressure. Which layer of the epidermis develops the callus?
What do vellus hairs lack?
The main components of the skin are the:
epidermis and dermis.
The ABCDE rule is used to distinguish normal moles from:
The region of skin that provides a tough barrier against pathogens and trauma is the:
How do nutrients reach the epidermis of the skin?
Diffusion transports nutrients from blood vessels in the dermis into the epidermis.
What tissue composes the reticular layer of the dermis?
dense irregular connective tissue
The bluish coloration of skin due to reduced levels of oxygen is called __________.
Subcutaneous injections involve administration of medicine into the:
Why are eyelashes shorter than terminal hairs on the scalp?
the growth stage of an eyelash is shorter
Which of the following is a characteristic of the epidermis?
consists of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
How do melanocytes and keratinocytes work together to protect the skin from UV damage?
Keratinocytes accumulate melanin granules to shield the keratinocyte's DNA.
For a male post-puberty, the majority of vellus hairs have transitioned to:
A burn that only damages the epidermis is classified as a __________.
From deep to superficial, what is the correct order of the layers of the epidermis?
stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum
The most superficial component of the skin is the:
Humans often purchase antiperspirants and deodorants to suppress and mask the odors of secretions from the:
Keratinocytes in the stratum corneum __________.
are dead and filled with keratin
Eccrine glands produce:
sweat containing mostly water.
What do dead keratinized cells form?