North German Confederation
After the Battle of Sadowa, Bismarck annexed Hannover, Nassau, Hesse-Cassel and Frankfurt in 1867. Ended the German Federal Union and organized the North German Confederation in which Prussia outweighed 21 other German states. Southern German states, Austria, Bavaria, Baden, Wurtemburg, and Hesse Darmstadt were outside the new organization and formed no union of their own. However, most were tied to Prussia by the Zollverein and by a defensive military alliance.