50 terms

Talk in Life and Literature Glossary

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Terms in this set (...)

Accent
The pronunciation of words.
Adjective
A type of word class. Adjective refers to words that describe a noun.
Adverb
Another word class. Adverbs describe the verbs and usually end in "ly".
Alliteration
Repetition of a series of consonant or vowel at the beginning of words.
Amelioration
Where a word's meaning lessens over time.
Anaphoric reference
Using the proper noun first, and then switching to pronouns.
Assonance
Repetition of the vowel sound in a series of words.
Auxiliary verb
Helps to establish when the action took place e.g. The cat was sitting beside the bowl'. 'Was' tells us its in the past.
Back-formation
Where a word is shortened by removing the latter part of the word e.g. 'photo' from 'photography'.
Broadening
Where a word gains wider meanings over time. 'Butcher' once meant a seller of goats and has now been broadened to a seller of meat.
Cataphoric reference
Using a series of pronouns before introducing the proper noun.
Clause
A main clause is a complete sentence, containing object, verb and subject, for example, 'It was cold'. A subordinate is dependant on the main clause e.g. 'because it was late' - to understand this you need 'he missed the bus because he was late'.
Computer Mediated Communication
Email, text, websites.
Collocation
Words that habitually go together e.g. 'fish and chips'.
Colloquial
The language of speech.
Compliment
Tells us something about the subject e.g. 'the man was busy'.
Connotations
From 'con' which means 'with' - these are the psychological associations that come with words.
Consonance
Repetition of the consonant sound in a series of words.
Dialect
Using different, regional lexis.
Declarative
The type of sentence function that states something/describes something.
Deictic Expression
Words or expressions that require context for understanding e.g. it, that, them.
Denotation
The dictionary definition of a word.
Determiner
Words that come before a noun to determine it e.g. 'the hat' 'her feather' 'your drink'.
'a/an' are indefinite articles, while 'the' is definite article.
Discourse structure
The structure of the text, including beginning, middle, end, any ordering.
Emoticon
Iconic representation of emotions.
Emotive
Language (often hyperbole) used to evoke emotions within the reader.
Euphemism
A word or phrase used to soften a harsh reality e.g. 'passed away' is a euphemism of 'death'.
False starts
Starting again to correct yourself.
Fillers
Similar to voiced pause but actually adding a word e.g. 'kinda' 'like' 'and stuff'.
First/second/third person
First person - writing in a subjective style using the personal pronouns e.g. 'I'.
Second person - writing in a style to directly address the reader e.g. 'you'.
Third person - writing in an objective style using the pronouns 'he' 'she' 'it'.
Function shift
Where a word moves from one word class to another. 'Google' was once a noun but has become a verb 'to Google'.
Graphology
From 'graph' which means 'image' and 'ology' which means 'study of', graphology is literally the study of images. It is the visual aspects of text such as layout, font sizes, image choices, etc.
Genre
The category that a text falls into. Wide examples are letter, newspaper article, novel excerpt.
Homonym
A word with the same spelling but a different meaning and sound such as 'lead' (verb) and 'lead' (noun).
Homophone
Words that sound the same but have different spellings depending on their meanings e.g. their, they're, there.
Hybrid
A cross between written and spoken language.
Hypernym
An 'umbrella' noun that encompasses many other nouns such as 'animal' encompasses 'cat' 'dog' 'goat'.
Hyponym
The words within the Hypernym with a narrower meaning that the 'umbrella' noun. Nouns like 'cat' 'dog' and 'goat' are hyponyms of 'animal'.
Idiolect
Individual language. Accent, pitch, favourite phrases all make up someone's personal language style.
Imperative
The type of sentence function that commands.
Interrogative
The type of sentence function that is a question.
Letter/figure homophone
l8 - later, b - be, 2 - to.
Lexis
Individual word choice.
Litotes
Understatements.
Media
Literally means 'in the middle of us' Reality - the media - us.
Metaphor
A comparison where on thing is said to be another which isn't literally true. 'It was raining cats and dogs'.
Metonymy
A word or phrase used to stand for a person, group or place e.g. 'Number 10' can represent the Prime Minister.
Morphology
Changing the spelling of words.
Narrowing
When a word's meaning is narrowed over time. 'Meat' once meant food in general but now means a specific type.
Neologism
A new word. Besides completely new words like 'email' there are four types:
1 - Recast: giving an existing word a new meaning e.g. cookies for computers are quite different to the edible ones.
2 - Compound: Joining two existing words together to form a new one