Environmental main events
Terms in this set (33)
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources
A new disease was discovered in Japan called Minamata disease. It was found to be linked to the release of methyl mercury into the waste-water produced by the Chisso Corporation's chemical factory. It accumulated in seafood, and caused mercury poisoning. It damaged the senses. In extreme cases it led to insanity, paralysis, and death.
Beginnings of the UN Law of the Sea
The Law of the Sea Convention defines the rights and responsibilities of nations with respect to their use of the world's oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of marine natural resources.
World Population Reaches 3 Billion
It is estimated that the population of the world reached one billion for the first time in 1804. It would be another 123 years before it reached two billion in 1927, but it took only 33 years to rise by another billion people, reaching three billion in 1960.
Protests about environmental disasters, and concern about unsustainable use of the Earth's resources have led to pressure groups, both local and international. "Save the Whale"
In 1962 American biologist Rachel Carson's influential book Silent Spring was published. It remains one of the most influential books of the environmental movement. The case against chemical pollution was strongly made by documenting the harmful effects of pesticides, and the book led to widespread concern about the use of pesticides and the pollution of the environment
Bhopal Disaster the Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal in India
the Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal in India /On Dec 3 1984, the Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal in India released 42 tons of toxic methyl isocyanate gas due to a processing tank overheating and bursting. Some 500,000 people were exposed to the gas. It has been estimated 8-10,000 people died in the first 72 hours, with up to 25,000 dying since due to gas related diseases.
Bhopal Disaster - 2,800 die. In 1984, the accidental release of 40 metric tons of methyl isocyanate from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in the heart of Bhopal, India killed thousands of people and injured hundreds of thousands.
the Chernobyl plant in the Ukraine
On April 26 1986 reactor number 4 at the Chernobyl plant in the Ukraine exploded. A plume of highly radioactive dust was sent into the atmosphere and fell over an extensive area. Large areas were contaminated. 336,000 people were evacuated. The fallout caused increased rates of cancer in most of the exposed area. Much of the area is still irradiated.
These events led to environmental pressure groups, the concept of stewardship, and increased media coverage raising public awareness.
"The Limits to Growth
1972 Club of Rome publishes "The Limits to Growth" showing the consequences of a rapidly growing population with a limited supply of resources
the first environmental conference/ in 1972 the first environmental conference (Stockholm Conference) was held.
In 1979 James Lovelock's book "Gaia" was published looking at the earth as a living organism
"Our Common Future"
In 1987, a report by the UN world commission on Environment and Development was published called "Our Common Future" as a follow-up to the Stockholm Conference.
In 1992 the UN's Earth Summit was held leading to the adoption of Agenda 21: the blue print for sustainable development
"An inconvenient truth"
In 2006, the film "An inconvenient truth" examined the issue of climate change.
The World Wide Fund for Nature is an international non-governmental organization founded on April 29, 1961, working in the field of the biodiversity conservation, and the reduction of humanity's footprint on the environment.
UN Biosphere Conference
In 1968 UNESCO organized the first Conference between States which had the aim of counterbalancing the classical trade-off between environment and development, coining the by now familiar concept of sustainable development.
First Earth Day in the USA
That's what Senator Gaylord Nelson of Wisconsin believed. He was disturbed that an issue as important as our environment was not addressed in politics or by the media, so he created the first Earth Day, on April 22, 1970. An estimated 20 million people nationwide attended festivities that day.
Women in the Himalayas, Northern India/ the primarily a forest conservation movement, went on to become a rallying point for many future, environmental protests and movements all over the world and created a precedent for non-violent protest. It occurred at a time when there was hardly any environmental movement in the developing world, and its success meant that the world immediately took notice of this non-violent movement, which was to inspire in time many such eco-groups by helping to slow down the rapid deforestation, expose vested interests, increase ecological awareness, and demonstrate the viability of people power.
the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments.
World Population Reaches 4 Billion
UN Habitat Conference
on City Living Conditions 1976/ The Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, in Istanbul, focused on sustainable cities and adequate shelter for all
World Climate Conference
World Climate Conference demands urgent attention to the enhanced greenhouse effect. Global warming from the increase in greenhouse gases has become a major scientific and political issue during the past decade.
The World Conservation Strategy
was commissioned by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) which together with the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) provided the financial support for its preparation and contributed to the evolution of its basic themes and structure.
Antarctic Ozone Hole discovered
The discovery of the Antarctic "ozone hole" by British Antarctic Survey scientists Farman, Gardiner and Shanklin (first reported in a paper in Nature in May 1985) came as a shock to the scientific community, because the observed decline in polar ozone was far larger than anyone had anticipated.
World Population Reaches 5 Billion
The Brundtland Report on Ennvironment and Development
Our Common Future, also known as the Brundtland Report, from the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) was published in 1987.
Its targets were multilateralism and interdependence of nations in the search for a sustainable development path. The report sought to recapture the spirit of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment - the Stockholm Conference - which had introduced environmental concerns to the formal political development sphere. Our Common Future placed environmental issues firmly on the political agenda; it aimed to discuss the environment and development as one single issue.
an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.
The Earth Summit in Rio de Janiero
a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992/ The issues addressed included:
systematic scrutiny of patterns of production — particularly the production of toxic components, such as lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste including radioactive chemicals
alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels which delegates linked to global climate change
new reliance on public transportation systems in order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in cities and the health problems caused by polluted air and smoke
the growing usage and limited supply of water
"The City Summit"
Habitat II conference (held in Istanbul, Turkey) -it brought together high-level representatives of national and local governments, as well as private sector, NGOs, research and training institutions and the media. Universal goals of ensuring adequate shelter for all and human settlements safer, healthier and more livable cities, inspired by the Charter of the United Nations, were discussed and endorsed.
an international treaty, which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gases emissions, based on the premise that (a) global warming exists and (b) man-made CO2 emissions have caused it.
World Population Reaches 6 Billion
The World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg
It was convened to discuss sustainable development by the United Nations. WSSD gathered a number of leaders from business and non-governmental organizations/ t is an agreement to focus particularly on "the worldwide conditions that pose severe threats to the sustainable development of our people, which include: chronic hunger; malnutrition; foreign occupation; armed conflict; illicit drug problems; organized crime; corruption; natural disasters; illicit arms trafficking; trafficking in persons; terrorism; intolerance and incitement to racial, ethnic, religious and other hatreds; xenophobia; and endemic, communicable and chronic diseases, in particular HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis." Johannesburg Declaration 19.
Nairobi Climate Change Conference
kenya/ The parties adopted a five-year plan of work to support climate change adaptation by developing countries, and agreed on the procedures and modalities for the Adaptation Fund. They also agreed to improve the projects for clean development mechanism.