Under the armchair navigator, _______, Portugal took the lead in developing and testing innovative sailing technologies in the 1400s.
The costly nature and ultimate failure of the campaigns of the ______ led to an increase in the power of European monarchs at the expense of the nobility and the papacy.
In the early 1500s, the ______ divided Christianity in Western Europe into Catholicism and Protestantism.
The "reconquista" of the _______ was achieved when Queen Isabella of Castile and King Ferdinand of Aragon united their kingdoms.
The main goals of Christopher Columbus's first exploration of the Americas were to find gold, claim lands for ______, and spread Christianity.
The Treaty of Tordesillas was an agreement established by the _____ in an effort to settle disagreements about expansion.
Term for people who worked a set number of years in return for passage to North America.
Leader of Virginia's frontier settlers who led a rebellion against Governor Berkeley in Jamestown in 1676.
Under this system, anyone who paid for their own or another's passage to Virginia received 50 acres of land.
These allowed several investors to pool their money in support of a colony in the New World that would hopefully yield a profit.
French and Indian War
This was the fourth war between Britain and France for control of North America.
A British financial expert hired by King George III that proposed and prompted British parliament to enact the Sugar Act.
British tax on colonial documents; later repealed by British due to colonist's organized resistance.
British attack on a mob in Massachusetts in 1770 that increased tensions with the colonists.
committee of correspondence
Groups set up by American colonists to exchange information about British threats to their liberty.
Olive Branch Petition
An offer of peace extended to Britain in 1775 by the Second Continental Congress
Thomas Paine's pamphlet which inflamed the colonists' desire for independence from Britain.
The Pennsylvania camp where George Washington's troops struggled to survive the winter of 1777-1778
Marquis de Lafayette
The French aristocrat and military leader who offered key assistance to the Patriots
Articles of Confederation
The set of laws that created two levels of government; later replaced by the Constitution.
Land Ordinance of 1785
The plan for surveying public land west of the Appalachians and north of the Ohio River.
The mob action by debt-ridden farmers in 1787; it highlighted the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
The group of electors chosen by each state to cast ballots for presidential candidates.
The supporters of the Constitution; those who favored a balance of federal and state powers.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution; it listed personal liberties and government limits.