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-from "dogmatikos" meaning belief
-who thought that the best way to understand illness was to develop theories about the bodies functions
-from "empeirikos" meaninf experience
-who thought the best way to understand illness was to observe sick people
the rule of parsimony
-comes from the latin word "parcere" meaning to spare
-scientists set out to develop a theory they start with the simplest one
complexity, variability, and reactivity
What are the 3 things that make people especially hard to study?
nothing is as complicated as the human brain
500 million interconnecting neurons that constitute the brain
no two individuals ever do, say, think, or feel exactly the same circumstances, which means that when you've seen one, you've most definitely not seen them all
people often think, feel, and act one way when they are being observed and a different way when they are not being studied or watched
misleading explanations that are meant to keep people from discerning the true purpose of an observation
pointless measures that are designed to mislead you about the true purpose of the observation
brief summary statements that capture the essential information from a frequency distribution
are statements about the value of the measurements that tend to lie near the center or midpoint of the frequency distribution
the mode and the median of a positively skewed distribution are much lower than the mean because the mean is more strongly influenced by the value of a single extreme measurement
perfect positive correlation
R=1, if every time the value of one variable increases by a fixed amount the value of the second variable also increases by a fixed amount
perfect negative correlation
R=-1, if every time the value of one variable increases by a fixed amount the value of the second variable decreases by a fixed amount
R=0, if every time the value of one variable increases by a fixed amount the value of the second variable does not increase or decrease systematically
when the odds that random assignment failed are less than 5% an experimental result
that tells scientists what kinds of conclusions or inferences they can draw from observed differences between the experimental and control groups
freedom of coercion
it is unethical to offer people large amounts of money to persuade them to do something that they might otherwise decline to do
protection from harm
psychologists must take every possible precaution to protect their research participants from physical or psychological harm
-if an option, must use the safer option
they may not even be asked to accept large risks, such as severe pain, psychological trauma, or any risk that is greater than the risks they would ordinarily take in their everyday lives
they may never decline participants about any aspect of a study that could cause them physical or psychological harm or pain
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