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• Normal: Less than 2 RBC/HPF
• Can originate from any part of the urinary tract
• In females, consider menstrual contamination
Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells
• Slightly larger than WBC
• Flat, cuboidal or columnar
• One large round eccentrically placed nucleus
• Tubular damage, pyelonephritis, ATN, salicylate intoxication, transplant rejection
Squamous Epithelial Cells
• Large, flat, irregular-shaped cells
• principally from the urethra and vagina
Transitional Epithelial Cells
Appearance: smaller than squamous epithelial cells, spherical, polyhedral, caudate-shaped, centrally located nucleus, may have two nuclei.
"indicate disease in area of origin, lining of renal pelvis, calyces, ureters, bladder, and upper portion of the male urethra"?
• Contain nucleus and cytoplasmic granules
• Brownian movement ("glitter cells")
• Normal: no more than 2 RBC/HPF
• Can originate from any part of the urinary tract (glomerulus to urethra)
• Increased In inflammatory processes of the urinary tract (pyuria)
Formed when protein accumulates in the kidney tubes and is deposited in the urine. May appear in normal urine. Can signal fever, stress, or high intensity exercise.
• Very high refractive index ,Yellow, gray or colorless,Smooth homogeneous appearance,Short, broad with blunt or broken ends ,Cracked or serrated edges
Severe chronic renal failure, malignant hypertension, diabetic nephropathy
• Second-most common type of cast
• Can result either from the breakdown of cellular casts, or the inclusion of aggregates of plasma proteins (eg, albumin) or immunoglobulin light chains
• Significance: chronic renal disease; As with hyaline casts, can also be seen for a short time following strenuous exercise.
Red Cell cast
• Renal hematuria, glomerular disease (ie, acute glomerulonephritis, lupus nephritis, renal trauma)
• brown to tan
• Stasis and desquamation of renal tubular epithelial cells following tubular damage and necrosis.
White Cell Cas
• Infection and noninfectious renal inflammation (ie, acute pyelonephritis, interstitial nephritis & lupus nephritis)
Oval Fat Body
• "Maltese-cross" pattern under polarized light.
• Fatty degeneration of the tubular epithelium in degenerative tubular disease.
Uric Acid Crystal (Acid)
• Very common
• Can be normal occurence
• Associated with increased purine metabolism
Calcium Oxalate (Acid)
Ingestion of oxalate-rich foods: spinach, rhubarb, tomatoes, garlic, oranges, asparagus
• High intake of ascorbic acid
• Ethylene glycol poisoning
Colorless, refractile, hexagonal plates
• Of diagnostic importance,
• Congenital cystinosis or cystinuria
• Clinically significant
• Maple syrup urine disease, Oasthouse urine disease, severe liver disease
• Seen with tyrosine in liver disease
• Large, flat, transparent
• Notched corners
• Excessive tissue breakdown
• Obstructed lymphatic flow
• Nephritis and nephrotic conditions
• Very fine, highly refractile needles
• Black, yellow
• In sheaves or clusters
• Severe liver disease
Calcium Phosphate (alkaline)
• Long thin, colorless needles
• One pointed end
• Arranged as rosettes or star
• Can be found in normal urines
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