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Anatomy and Physiology -
Chapter 1- Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Terms in this set (39)
What Is Anatomy ?
Is the study of the structure and shape of the body and their parts.
What is Physiology?
Is the study of how the body and its parts work or function.
Name the six levels of structural organization that make up the human body, and explain how they are related.
Chemical level , Cellular level , Tissue level , organs level, organ systems level , Organism level
Atoms combine to form molecules such as water sugar and protein. molecules associate in different ways to form microscopic cells. groups of similar cells with similar functions combine together to form tissues. Two or more tissue types form together to create an organ. A group of organs work together to form a organ system. The 11 organ systems make up the living human being.
Observing our own body or study large body structures such as the heart or bones.
Is the study of body structures that are too small to be seen with the naked eye.
eg. cells and tissues
Covers the surface of the body and lines the body cavities, ducts, and vessels.
Support, storage, and Protection
One of four tissues in the body
* Returns Fluids to blood
* Involved in Immunity - Houses white blood cells
* removes impurities from the lymphatic stream
* Keeps blood supplied with oxygen
* Removes carbon dioxide
* Gaseous exchange occurs through the lining of their walls
* Protects and supports body organs
* provide a framework the muscles use to cause movement
* Blood cells are formed within the bones
* stores minerals
Reproductive System Male
* Testes produce perm and male sex hormones
* Ducts and glands aid in the delivery of viable sperm to the female reproductive tract
Reproductive System Female
* Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormone
* Site for fertilization and development of the fetus
* Mammary glands (breast) produce milk to nourish babies.
* Fast acting
* responds to internal and external changes
* Activates glands and muscles
* communication between cells
* Breaks down foods into smaller units
* Allow nutrients to absorb into blood
* indigestible foods are eliminated as feces
* Eliminates nitrogenous waste from the body
* Regulates water and electrolytes
* Maintains acid - base balance
* produces heat
* Maintain posture
* Necessary for movement
* Regulates body temperature
* Protects deeper tissue from injury
* Synthesizes vitamin D
* location of sensory receptors and sweat and oil glands
* Slowest System
* Secretes regulatory hormones (growth, metabolism, reproduction)
* Control body activities slowly
* Transports nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to cell
One of the four tissues
List eight functions that humans must perform to maintain life.
Movement, Responsiveness, Irritability, Digestion, Metabolism, Excretion, Reproduction, and Growth
Movement - ( Func. that hum. must perform to maintain life.)
* All the activities promoted by the muscular system
** propelling ourselves from one place to another. Skeletal system provides bones that muscle pull on
* Substances (Food, blood, urine) are propelled through the internal organs of the cardiovascular, digestive and urinary system
Responsiveness/Irritability - ( Func. that hum. must perform to maintain life.)
* The ability to sense changes in the environment and react to them
* nerve cells are highly irritable and can communicate rapidly with each other via electrical impulses
* So the the inside remains distinct from the outside
* The body is enclosed by the integumentary system which protects internal organs from drying out.
Digestion - ( Func. that hum. must perform to maintain life.)
* Process of breaking down ingested foods into simple molecules that can then be absorbed into the blood.
* blood is distributed by the cardiovascular system
Metabolism - ( Func. that hum. must perform to maintain life.)
* All chemical reactions that occur within body cells
* Breaks down complex substances into simpler building blocks
* using nutrients and oxygen to produce molecules of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) to power cellular activities
* Is regulated mainly by hormones secreted by the glands of the endocrine system
Excretion - ( Func. that hum. must perform to maintain life.)
Is the process of removing waste form the body
Reproduction - ( Func. that hum. must perform to maintain life.)
* The reproduction of cells to repair or promote growth ( Cellular reproduction
* The production of offspring through the reproductive system.
Growth - ( Func. that hum. must perform to maintain life.)
* Is an increase in size usually accomplished by an increase in the number of cells
* hormones released by the endocrine system plays a major role in directing growth
List the five survival needs of the human body
Nutrients, Oxygen, Normal body temperature, atmospheric pressure, and water
* Takes in chemicals used for energy and cell building
- Carbs provide fuel for cells
- Proteins essential for building cell structure
- Fats cushion body organs and provide reserve for food
- Mineral and vitamins required for chemical reactions to in cell and for oxygen transport to the blood
Chemical reactions that release energy from foods require oxygen cells can only survive a few mins without it
* Account for 60 - 80 percent of body weight
* provides the fluid base for body secretion and excretions
Normal body temperature
*Must be maintained at 37 degree Celsius
When too slow metabolic processes slow down, too fast they speed up
Refers to the force exerted on the surface of the body by the weight of air.
- Breathing and exchange of gases in the respiratory system depends on the appropriate atmospheric pressure
- Affects ATP
Is the body's ability to maintain stable internal environments necessary for normal body function.
* it is accomplish mainly by the nervous and endocrine system which use electrical signals delivered by nerves or bloodborne hormones as information carriers
All Homeostatic control mechanisms have at least 3 components.
** A receptor is a sensor that monitors/ respond to changes within the environment, responds to stimuli by sending information along afferent pathway to the control center)
** Control Center determine levels a variable is to be maintained, Analyzes information then determines appropriate response)
** The effector provides the means for the control center response to the stimuli, information flows from control center to the effector along the efferent pathway. The results of the response influences the stimuli negatively by depressing it ( negative feedback) so that the control mechanism is shut off or by enhancing it so that the reaction occurs at a even faster rate.
The response of the stimuli is to shut off the original stimulus or reduce its intensity.
They increase the original variable to push the stimulus further.
Eg. Birth, Blood clotting
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