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Histology 111-Integumentary system

STUDY
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Which of the following is composed of loose connective tissue?
a. Epidermis
b. Reticular layer of dermis
c. Hypodermis
d. Both a and b
e. Both b and c
c. Hypodermis
The skin is composed of two layers: the epidermis and the dermis. Underneath these layers lies the hypodermis. The epidermis is stratified squamous epithelium. The dermis is composed of a papillary layer and a reticular layer. The reticular layer of the dermis is made up of dense irregular connective tissue. The hypodermis is a layer of loose connective tissue.
Where is thick skin found?
a. Over the knee
b. Sole of the feet
c. Breast
d. Lips
e. All of the above
b. Sole of the feet
Which layer of the epidermis has cells which have keratohyaline granules?
a. Stratum basale
b. Stratum spinosum
c. Stratum granulosum
d. Stratum lucidum
e. Stratum corneum
c. Stratum granulosum

The epidermis is divided into five layers: stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum.

The stratum basale contains the dividing cells. This layer is also called the stratum germinativum.

The stratum spinosum consists of a layer several cells deep. The cells have pointy or spiny processes on them. The cells in the stratum granulosum contain keratohyaline granules.

The stratum lucidum is present only in thick skin.

The stratum corneum is the outermost layer. The cells in this layer are essentially bags of keratin. They contain no nuclei or organelles.

Histology hint from Sarah Bellham: My favorite mnemonic for remembering the layers of the skin: "Californian Ladies Give Superb Backrubs"
Which cell is a macrophage found in the skin?
a. Kupffer cells
b. Histiocyte
c. Dust cell
d. Langerhans cell
e. Microglia
d. Langerhans cell

Macrophages are mononuclear phagocytes. Many tissues have resident (fixed) macrophages. Fixed macrophages are given a unique name, depending on the tissue that they are located in. Kupffer cells are the hepatic macrophages. Histiocytes are macrophages seen in connective tissue. Dust cells are alveolar macrophage found in the respiratory tract. Langerhans cells are macrophages seen in the skin. Microglia are the central nervous system macrophages.
A new miracle skin cream recently hit the beauty counters which is suppose to stimulate collagen production. Which cell is it supposedly stimulating?
a. Langerhans cell
b. Keratinocyte
c. Melanocyte
d. Merkel cell
e. Fibroblast
e. Fibroblast

Langerhans cells, keratinocytes, melanocytes, and Merkel cells are all found in the epidermis. The Langerhans cell is a phagocyte. The keratinocyte is the most abundant cell in the epidermis. The melanocyte produces melanin, which is responsible for skin pigmentation. The Merkel cell is a mechanoreceptor.

Fibroblasts are found in the dermis. Fibroblasts produces collagen.
What is the half moon shaped white area on a nail called?
a. Lunula
b. Eponychium
c. Matrix
d. Nail bed
e. Root
a. Lunula
The lunula is the half moon shaped white area on a nail. The anatomical term for the cuticle is the eponychium. The matrix is the region of the nails where there are dividing cells and nail growth. The nail plate rests on the nail bed. The nail root is the proximal portion of the nail that is underneath skin.
What is the growing part of the nail?
a. Lunula
b. Eponychium
c. Matrix
d. Nail bed
e. Root
c. Matrix
What type of glands are the ceruminous glands?
a. Sebaceous glands
b. Eccrine sweat gland
c. Endocrine gland
d. Apocrine sweat gland
e. Oil gland
d. Apocrine sweat gland
Which of the following is the most abundant sensory receptor of the skin?
a. Free nerve endings
b. Ruffini's corpuscles
c. Pacinian corpuscles
d. Krause's end bulbs
e. Meissner's corpuscle
a. Free nerve endings
There are several different sensory receptors in the skin. The most abundant sensory receptor are the free nerve endings. Free nerve endings respond to pain and temperature. Ruffini's corpuscles respond to continuous pressure. Pacinian corpuscles respond to vibration and rapidly changing pressure. Krause's end bulbs are a receptor for fine touch which are located in mucous membranes and the tongue. Meissner's corpuscles are also a receptor for fine touch but they are located in the dermis.
Where can hair be found?
a. Palms of hand
b. Soles of feet
c. Urogenital openings
d. Lips
e. Eyelid
e. Eyelid
Which of the following is composed of connective tissue?
a. Epidermis
b. Dermis
c. Hypodermis
d. Both a and b
e. Both b and c
e. Both b and c (b. Dermis
c. Hypodermis)

The skin is composed of two layers: the epidermis and the dermis. Underneath these layers lies the hypodermis. The epidermis is stratified squamous epithelium. The dermis is composed of a papillary layer and a reticular layer. The reticular layer of the dermis is made up of dense irregular connective tissue. The hypodermis is a layer of loose connective tissue.
Which of the following is composed of dense irregular connective tissue?
a. Epidermis
b. Reticular layer of dermis
c. Hypodermis
d. Both a and b
e. Both b and c
b. Reticular layer of dermis
Where is thick skin found?
a. Lips
b. Over the knee
c. Palms
d. Breast
e. All of the above
c. Palms
Which layer of the epidermis is present only in thick skin?
a. Stratum basale
b. Stratum spinosum
c. Stratum granulosum
d. Stratum lucidum
e. Stratum corneum
d. Stratum lucidum

The epidermis is divided into five layers: stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum.

The stratum basale contains the dividing cells. This layer is also called the stratum germinativum.

The stratum spinosum consists of a layer several cells deep. The cells have pointy or spiny processes on them. The cells in the stratum granulosum contain keratohyaline granules.

The stratum lucidum is present only in thick skin.

The stratum corneum is the outermost layer. The cells in this layer are essentially bags of keratin. They contain no nuclei or organelles.

Note from Sarah Bellham: My favorite mnemonic for remembering the layers of the skin: "Californian Ladies Give Superb Backrubs"
Which cell is a mechanoreceptors?
a. Langerhans cell
b. Keratinocyte
c. Melanocyte
d. Merkel cell
e. Fibroblast
d. Merkel cell
Langerhans cells, keratinocytes, melanocytes, and Merkel cells are all found in the epidermis. The Langerhans cell is a phagocyte. The keratinocyte is the most abundant cell in the epidermis. The melanocyte produces melanin, which is responsible for skin pigmentation. The Merkel cell is a mechanoreceptor.

Fibroblasts are found in the dermis. Fibroblasts produces collagen.
Which cell is found in the dermis?
a. Langerhans cell
b. Keratinocyte
c. Melanocyte
d. Merkel cell
e. Fibroblast
e. Fibroblast
What is underneath the nail plate?
a. Lunula
b. Eponychium
c. Matrix
d. Nail bed
e. Root
d. Nail bed

The lunula is the half moon shaped white area on a nail. The anatomical term for the cuticle is the eponychium. The matrix is the region of the nails where there are dividing cells and nail growth. The nail plate rests on the nail bed. The nail root is the proximal portion of the nail that is underneath skin.
What is the innervation of an eccrine sweat gland?
a. Cholinergic; parasympathetic
b. Cholinergic; sympathetic
c. Adrenergic; parasympathetic
d. Adrenergic; sympathetic
e. Cholinergic; motor
b. Cholinergic; sympathetic
Which of the following responds to continuous pressure?
a. Free nerve endings
b. Ruffini's corpuscles
c. Pacinian corpuscles
d. Krause's end bulbs
e. Meissner's corpuscle
b. Ruffini's corpuscles
There are several different sensory receptors in the skin. The most abundant sensory receptor are the free nerve endings. Free nerve endings respond to pain and temperature. Ruffini's corpuscles respond to continuous pressure. Pacinian corpuscles respond to vibration and rapidly changing pressure. Krause's end bulbs are a receptor for fine touch which are located in mucous membranes and the tongue. Meissner's corpuscles are also a receptor for fine touch but they are located in the dermis.
Which of the following is found in the hair follicle?
a. Pigment epithelium
b. Muller's cells
c. Huxley's layer
d. Horizontal cells
e. Cones
c. Huxley's layer
The reticular layer is part of which layer?
a. Epidermis
b. Dermis
c. Hypodermis
d. Both a and b
e. None of the above
b. Dermis
Which of the following is NOT considered an epidermal appendage?
a. Sweat gland
b. Hair
c. Hypodermis
d. Nails
e. Sebaceous glands
c. Hypodermis
Which layer of the epidermis is also called the stratum germinativum?
a. Stratum basale
b. Stratum spinosum
c. Stratum granulosum
d. Stratum lucidum
e. Stratum corneum
a. Stratum basale
Which layer of the epidermis is on the surface of the skin?
a. Stratum basale
b. Stratum spinosum
c. Stratum granulosum
d. Stratum lucidum
e. Stratum corneum
e. Stratum corneum
Which cell is the most abundant cell in the epidermis?
a. Langerhans cell
b. Keratinocyte
c. Melanocyte
d. Merkel cell
e. Fibroblast
b. Keratinocyte
What type of epithelium forms the epidermis?
a. Simple squamous epithelium
b. Simple cuboidal epithelium
c. Simple columnar epithelium
d. Stratified squamous epithelium
e. Pseudostratified epithelium
d. Stratified squamous epithelium
What is the portion of the nail which is underneath skin?
a. Lunula
b. Eponychium
c. Matrix
d. Nail bed
e. Root
e. Root
The lunula is the half moon shaped white area on a nail. The anatomical term for the cuticle is the eponychium. The matrix is the region of the nails where there are dividing cells and nail growth. The nail plate rests on the nail bed. The nail root is the proximal portion of the nail that is underneath skin.
What type of glands are the glands of Moll?
a. Endocrine gland
b. Apocrine sweat gland
c. Oil gland
d. Sebaceous glands
e. Eccrine sweat gland
b. Apocrine sweat gland
Which of the following responds to vibration and rapidly changing pressure?
a. Free nerve endings
b. Ruffini's corpuscles
c. Pacinian corpuscles
d. Krause's end bulbs
e. Meissner's corpuscle
c. Pacinian corpuscles
There are several different sensory receptors in the skin. The most abundant sensory receptor are the free nerve endings. Free nerve endings respond to pain and temperature. Ruffini's corpuscles respond to continuous pressure. Pacinian corpuscles respond to vibration and rapidly changing pressure. Krause's end bulbs are a receptor for fine touch which are located in mucous membranes and the tongue. Meissner's corpuscles are also a receptor for fine touch but they are located in the dermis.
Which of the following is a receptor for fine touch which is located in mucous membranes?
a. Free nerve endings
b. Ruffini's corpuscles
c. Pacinian corpuscles
d. Krause's end bulbs
e. Meissner's corpuscle
d. Krause's end bulbs
There are several different sensory receptors in the skin. The most abundant sensory receptor are the free nerve endings. Free nerve endings respond to pain and temperature. Ruffini's corpuscles respond to continuous pressure. Pacinian corpuscles respond to vibration and rapidly changing pressure. Krause's end bulbs are a receptor for fine touch which are located in mucous membranes and the tongue. Meissner's corpuscles are also a receptor for fine touch but they are located in the dermis.
Which of the following is composed of stratified squamous epithelium?
a. Epidermis
b. Dermis
c. Hypodermis
d. Both a and b
e. Both b and c
a. Epidermis
Which of the following is NOT a function of skin
a. Vitamin D production
b. Protection from water loss
c. Sensory reception
d. Heat regulation
e. All are functions of skin
e. All are functions of skin
Which layer of the epidermis contains dividing cells?
a. Stratum basale
b. Stratum spinosum
c. Stratum granulosum
d. Stratum lucidum
e. Stratum corneum
a. Stratum basale
Which layer of the epidermis contains cells with no nuclei or organelles?
a. Stratum basale
b. Stratum spinosum
c. Stratum granulosum
d. Stratum lucidum
e. Stratum corneum
e. Stratum corneum
Which cell is a phagocyte?
a. Langerhans cell
b. Keratinocyte
c. Melanocyte
d. Merkel cell
e. Fibroblast
a. Langerhans cell
What is a characteristic of the cells in the epidermis of the skin?
a. Microvilli
b. Stereocilia
c. Cilia
d. Keratinization
e. Both a and b
d. Keratinization
Where are apocrine sweat glands NOT found?
a. Areola
b. External genitalia
c. Posterior neck
d. Axilla
e. Circumanal region
c. Posterior neck

Sweat glands are divided into apocrine and eccrine. Apocrine sweat glands are found on the areola, external genitalia, axilla, and curcumanal region. Eccrine sweat glands are distributed over most of the body.
Which of the following is a receptor for fine touch which is located in the dermis?
a. Free nerve endings
b. Ruffini's corpuscles
c. Pacinian corpuscles
d. Krause's end bulbs
e. Meissner's corpuscle
e. Meissner's corpuscle
Which of the following is found in the hair follicle?
a. Henle's layer
b. Bipolar cells
c. Amacrine cells
d. Rods
e. Ganglion cells
a. Henle's layer
Bipolar cells, amacrine cells, rods, and ganglion cells are all part of the retina.

Henle's layer is a layer in the hair follicle.
The papillary layer is part of which layer?
a. Epidermis
b. Dermis
c. Hypodermis
d. Both a and b
e. None of the above
b. Dermis
Which layer of the epidermis contains star shaped cells?
a. Stratum basale
b. Stratum spinosum
c. Stratum granulosum
d. Stratum lucidum
e. Stratum corneum
b. Stratum spinosum
Which of the following layers comprise the skin?
a. Epidermis
b. Dermis
c. Hypodermis
d. Both a and b
e. Both b and c
d. Both a and b a. Epidermis
b. Dermis
Which cell is responsible for skin pigmentation?
a. Langerhans cell
b. Keratinocyte
c. Melanocyte
d. Merkel cell
e. Fibroblast
c. Melanocyte
Which of the following responds to pain?
a. Free nerve endings
b. Ruffini's corpuscles
c. Pacinian corpuscles
d. Krause's end bulbs
e. Meissner's corpuscle
a. Free nerve endings
What is the correct term for cuticle?
a. Lunula
b. Eponychium
c. Matrix
d. Nail bed
e. Root
b. Eponychium
What color is keratin with Masson's trichrome stain?
a. Red
b. Pink
c. Green
d. Black
e. Yellow
a. Red
What type of tissue makes up the dermis of the skin?
a. Mucous connective tissue
b. Mesenchyme
c. Loose irregular connective tissue
d. Dense irregular connective tissue
e. Dense regular connective tissue
d. Dense irregular connective tissue
What are the pressure receptors in skin called?
a. Psammoma bodies
b. Corpora arenacea
c. Hassall's corpuscles
d. Prostatic concretions
e. Pacinian corpuscles
e. Pacinian corpuscles

Psammoma bodies are collections of calcium. It is derived from the Greek word "psammos", which means sand.

Corpora arenacea refers to the calcifications seen in the pineal gland. Corpora arenacea is nicknamed "brain sand".

Hassall's corpuscles are the ring like structures found in the thymus.

The spherical structures seen in some prostatic alveoli are called prostatic concretions.

Pacinian corpuscles are pressure receptors in the skin.
Which sensory receptor in the skin is NOT encapsulated?
a. Ruffini endings
b. Free nerve endings
c. Pacinian corpuscles
d. Meissner's corpuscles
e. Merkel cells
b. Free nerve endings
Ruffini endings, pacinian corpuscles, meissner's corpuscles, and merkel cells are all encapsulated sensory receptors. Free nerve endings are not encapsulated.