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process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria


a virus that infects bacteria


monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

base pairing

principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine


granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins


protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin


copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA

DNA polymerase

enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule


sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait

messenger RNA

RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell

ribosomal RNA

type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes

transfer RNA

type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis


process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA

RNA polymerase

enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription


region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA


sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein


expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein


three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid


decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain


group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon


one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome


area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached


one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope


term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate


separation of alleles during gamete formation

independent assortment

independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes

polygenic trait

trait controlled by two or more genes


structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis


process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis


organism whose cells contain nuclei


unicellular organism lacking a nucleus


when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes


when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes


process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane


process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell


process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment


process by which a cell releases large amounts of material

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