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37 terms

Sherwood Bio Midterm

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transformation
process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria
bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria
nucleotide
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
base pairing
principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine
chromatin
granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
histone
protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
replication
copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
DNA polymerase
enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
gene
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
messenger RNA
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
ribosomal RNA
type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes
transfer RNA
type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
transcription
process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA
RNA polymerase
enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription
promoter
region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA
intron
sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein
exon
expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
codon
three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
translation
decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
chromatid
one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
centromere
area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
centriole
one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope
true-breeding
term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate
segregation
separation of alleles during gamete formation
independent assortment
independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes
polygenic trait
trait controlled by two or more genes
tetrad
structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
crossing-over
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
eukaryote
organism whose cells contain nuclei
prokaryote
unicellular organism lacking a nucleus
hypertonic
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
hypotonic
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
endocytosis
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
phagocytosis
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell
pinocytosis
process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment
exocytosis
process by which a cell releases large amounts of material