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58 terms

Agriscience chs. 32-33

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Gourmet
sensitive and discriminating taste in food preferences.
food industry
involved in the production, processing, storage, preparation, and distribution of food for consumption by living things.
retailer
the person or store that sells directly to the consumer.
wholesaler
a person who sells to the retailer, having purchased fresh or processed food in lare quantities.
distributor
stores the food until a request is received to transport the food to a regional market.
processor
anyone involved in cleaning, separating, handling, and preparing a food product before it is ready to be sold to the distributor.
grader
the person who inspects the food for freshness, size, and quality, and determines under what criteria it will be sold and consumed.
packer
the person or firm responsible for putting the food into containers, such as boxes crates, bags, or bins, for shipment to the processing plant.
trucker
the person responsible for transporting the product anywhere along the way from far to consumer.
harvester
the person who removes the edible portions from the plants in the field.
producer
grows the crop and determines its readiness for harvest.
Grades
are based on quality standards
Climatic conditions
refer to average temperature, number of days with a certain temperature range, length of growing season, and amount of precipitation for a given geographic area.
Microorganisms
spoilage is usually caused by microorganisms. Microorganisms that contribute to food spoilage are bacteria, fungi, and nematodes.
Migratory labor
refers to workers who move from place to place where harvesting is occurring throughout the year.
Processing
the steps involved in turning the raw agricultural product into an attractive and consumable food are collectively known as processing.
bran
the skin or covering of a wheat kernel
endosperm
is inside the bran which will become flour
germ
a new wheat plant inside the kernel.
food
a material containing or consisting of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and supplementary substances, such as minerals, used in the body of an organism to sustain growth, repair, and vital processes and to furnish energy.
Fermentation
a chemical change that involves foaming as gas is released.
Controlled atmosphere
is the process whereby oxygen and carbon dioxide are adjusted to preserve or enhance particular foods.
blanching
scalding of food for a brief time before freezing it.
canning
involves putting food in airtight containers and sterilizing the food to kill all living microorganisms that could cause spoilage.
Freeze-drying
the newest method of dehydration.
Oxidative deterioration
loss of quality because of a reaction with oxygen
dehydrofrozen product
is processed by precooking, evaporating water, and freezing.
retortable pouches
are flexible packages consisting of two layers of film with a layer of foil between them.
Irradiation
is a relatively new procedure using gamma rays to kill insects, bacteria, fungi, and other organisms in food products.
dry-heat cooking
involves surrounding the food with dry air in the oven or under the broiler
moist-heat cooking
involves surrounding the food with hot liquid or by steaming, braising, boiling, or stewing the food.
conventional ovens
are used to cook small amounts of foods by dry heat
microwave oven
uses electromagnetic waves to heat and cook food.
convection ovens
heat food with the forced movement of hot air.
dehydrators
remove moisture for food
smokers
preserve food by keeping smoke in contact with the food for prolonged periods.
cream
a component of milk that contains up to 40% butterfat
cheese
is made by exposing milk to certain bacterial fermentations or by treating it with enzymes.
cottage cheese
is made from skimmed milk.
condensed milk and evaporated milk
are both produced by removing large portions of water from the whole milk through a machine called a vacuum pan. Condensed milk is further treated by adding sugar.
shackles
are mechanical devices that confine the legs and prevent movement.
hoist
means to raise into position
viscera
refers to organs located in the body cavity of the animal
carcass
refers to the body meat of the animal the part that is left after the offal has been removed.
offal
consists of the non-meat material that is converted to by-products.
split carcass
sides of the animal
shroud
a large cloth used to wrap a hot carcass in
age or ripen
means to leave undisturbed for a period so that minor biological changes can take place while the beef cools.
block beef
exposed halves, quarters, or wholesale cuts to be cut into retail cuts in supermarkets.
disassembly process
means that the carcass is divided into smaller cuts, vacuum sealed, boxed, moved into storage, and shipped to retailers.
evisceration
the opening of the carcass and removal of the viscera
singe
means to burn lightly to remove hair
leaf fat
consists of layers of fat inside the body cavity
dressing percentage
is a term used to indicate the percentage or yield of hot carcass weight to the weight of the animal on foot.
sweet breads
thymus and pancreatic glands
tripe
pickled rumen, or stomach of cattle and sheep
tankage
is the dried animal residue used as fertilizer and feed for animals other than cattle.
collagen
is the chief constituent of the connective tissues.