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APUSH The American Pageant 12e Chapter 29 Roosevelt and Progressivism, 1901-1912
Terms in this set (50)
reformers who worked to stop unfair practices by businesses and improve the way grovernment works
Henry Demarest Lloyd
He wrote the book "Wealth Against Commonwealth" in 1894. It was part of the progressive movement and the book's purpose was to show the wrong in the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company.
United States economist who wrote about conspicuous consumption (1857-1929)
Jacob A. Riis
Danish immigrant reporter for the New York Sun who shocked middle class Americans with his account "How the Other Half Lives", a damning indictment of the poverty of the New York slums that profoundly influenced New York City police commissioner, Theodore Roosevelt.
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
Group that believed nation's resources and industries should be owned and operated by the government on behalf of the people
The "social gospel"
Protestant movement in the 1880s as a reaction to industrialization, but became popular only after 1900 as a part of liberal Christian belief. This built on theological liberalism and modernism. It inherited from liberalism an emphasis on moral conduct as the core of Christian practice and insisted that Christian moral norms implied the need to fundamentally reform economic activity, which had hitherto been seen as occupying a 'separate' amoral sphere in which exploitation and ruthless competition were ok. From modernism, this took the impulse to reconcile religion and science, but while modernism was concerned with reconciling religion with natural science, the social gospel movement reached out to social science which it was as an ally in reforming society along Christian lines.
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936), Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.
Thomas W. Lawson
made over $50 million on the Stock Market and wrote a series of articles in the magazine Everybody's from 1905-1906 titled "Frenzied Finance" that revealed how his accomplices practiced and worked the Stock Market.
David G. Phillips
Wrote a series in Cosmopolitan titled "The Treason of the Senate" which boldly charged that 75 of the 90 senators represented the railroads and trusts, not the people. His indictment impressed President Roosevelt. He continued his writing until he was killed in 1911.
Ray Stannard Baker
He worked with Tarbell and Steffans at McClure's. Best known for his work "Railroads on Trial". He was the first prominent journalist to write on race relations in the South- "The Clashes of the Races in a Southern City." He believed that social justice required journalism of "righteous indignation."
Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters
The name given to the political process in which the general public votes on an issue of public concern.
the act of removing an official by petition
A government printed ballot of uniform size and shape to be cast in secret that was adopted by many states around 1890 in order to reduce the voting fraud associated with party printed ballots cast in public.
Seventeenth Amendment (1913)
Progressive reform from 1913 that required U.S. senators to be elected directly by voters; previously, senators were chosen by state legislatures.
City manager system (Galveston, 1901)
run city like an efficient business; would reduce immigrant' political clout and increased influence of the corporate elite; business interests support
Robert M. LaFollette
Three term governor of Wisconsin, then U.S. Senator in 1906, he was one of the earliest proponents of Progressive Reform.
fought for railroad regulation in California helped to break the dominant grip of the Southern Pacific Railroad on California politics in 1910
Charles Evans Hughes
Started government regulation of public utilities. He was Secretary of State under Harding and later became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He was the Republican candidate in 1916, and lost to Wilson by less that 1% of the vote.
Women's club movement
gave a broad civic entry to middle-class women; literary clubs that educated women in "poem and prose" but eventually became a meeting hall for social issues and current events
Florence Kelly (National Consumer's League)
Active in the settlement house movement and led progressive labor reforms for women and children.
Muller v. Oregon (1908)
First case to use the "Brandeis brief"; recognized a 10-hour work day for women laundry workers on the grounds of health and community concerns.
Louis D. Brandeis
This brilliant lawyer and later a justice of the Supreme court spoke and wrote widely about the "curse of bigness." He thought the government should help small businesses.
Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire (1911)
This New York City company experienced a fire in which 146 women workers were killed. After this, the legislatures of New York and other states passed laws regulating hours and working conditions of such factories.
Frances Willard and WCTU
Dean of Women at Northwestern University and the president of the Women's Christian Temperance Union which she build to become the largest organization of women in the world.
states passed these which controlled, restricted or abolished alcohol
President Theodore Roosevelt's plan for reform; all Americans are entitled to an equal opportinity to succeed
Coal Strike (1902)
Strike by the United Coal Workers of America, threatening to shut down the winter coal supply. Theodore Roosevelt intervened federally, and resolved the dispute
Department of Commerce and Labor (1903)
The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth. The mission of the department is to "promote job creation and improved living standards for all Americans by creating an infrastructure that promotes economic growth, technological competitiveness, and sustainable development." Among its tasks are gathering economic and demographic data for business and government decision-making, issuing patents and trademarks, and helping to set industrial standards.
Elkins Act (1903)
sponsored by President Theodore Roosevelt, provided for the regulation of interstate railroads. The act forbade rebates or other rate reductions to shipping companies. Railroads were not allowed to offer rates different from the published rates.
Hepburn Act (1906)
This Act tightened existing railroad regulation. Empowered the Interstate Commerce Commission to set maximum railroad rates and to examine railroad's financial records.
consortium of independent organizations formed to limit competition by controlling the production and distribution of a product or service
Northern Securities Case (1904)
1904, important railroad trust formed in 1902, company controlled the stock of their rival railroad interests, did not violate the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
J. P. Morgan and James J. Hill
Together, they were involved in the Great Northern Railway. Morgan was a banker and Hill was a railroad tycoon.
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
Meat Inspection and Pure Food and Drug Acts (1906)
these gave the department of agriculture and the food and drug administration the power to visit business and inspect their products
political, social and scientific movement to protect natural resources
head of the U.S. Forest Servic under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them
Newlands Act (1902)
a United States federal law that funded irrigation projects for the arid lands of the American West. It was authored by Representative Francis G. Newlands of Nevada.
John Muir and Hetch Hetchy (1913)
founded Sierra Club in 1892; fought unsuccessfully to prevent the damming of the Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite National Park.
Panic of 1907
a serious recession, proved the govt. still had little control over the industrial economy. Conservatives blamed Roosevelt's mad economic policies for the disaster, and the president disagreed, but acted quickly to reassure business leaders that he wouldn't interfere with their private recovery efforts.
William Howard Taft
27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.
Eugene V. Debs (election of 1908)
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
President Taft's policy of linking American business interests to diplomatic interests abroad
Nicaraguan intervention (1912)
United States interest in Nicaragua, which had waned during the last half of the 1800s because of isolationist sentiment following the United States Civil War (1861-65), grew again during the final years of the Zelaya administration. Angered by the United States choice of Panama for the site of a transisthmian canal, President Zelaya made concessions to Germany and Japan for a competing canal across Nicaragua. Relations with the United States deteriorated, and civil war erupted in October 1909, when anti-Zelaya liberals joined with a group of conservatives under Juan Estrada to overthrow the government. The United States broke diplomatic relations with the Zelaya administration after two United States mercenaries serving with the rebels were captured and executed by government forces. Soon thereafter, 400 United States marines landed on the Caribbean coast. Weakened and pressured by both domestic and external forces, Zelaya resigned on December 17, 1909. His minister of foreign affairs, José Madriz, was appointed president by the Nicaraguan Congress. A liberal from León, Madriz was unable to restore order under continuing pressure from conservatives and the United States forces, and he resigned on August 20, 1910.
Payne-Aldrich Tariff (1909)
With the fear of foreign competition gone, it lowered rates to 38%. Democrats felt it did not go far enough and passed the Underwood Tariff in 1913 to further lower taxes.
Progressives vs. the "Old Guard" (1912)
This would be a good essay!
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