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APUSH The American Pageant Chapter 30 Wilsonian Progressivism, 1912-1916
Terms in this set (33)
Dr. Woodrow Wilson
democrat, progressive, president of Princeton, governor of NJ, "new freedom" platform
Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party
This political party was formed by T. Roosevelt in an attempt to advance progressive ideas and unseat President W.H. Taft in the election of 1912. After Taft won the Republican party's nomination, Roosevelt ran on the Progressive party ticket.
Roosevelt's progressive political policy that favored heavy government intervention in order to assure social justice
He wrote the The Promise of American Life (1909) where he called for an activist fed government of the kind Alexander Hamilton had advocated in the 1790s but one that would serve all citizens, not merely the capitalist class.
Woodrow Wilson's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Freedom emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one.
"Triple Wall of Privilege"
President Wilson called for an all-out war on what he called "the triple wall of privilege": the tariff, the banks, and the trusts.
His first step, with working with the tariffs, included making an appearance to the Congress in 1913. There, he the Underwood Tariff Bill was passed which helped in lowering tariffs greatly.
He next attacked the severely suffering banking system by putting into place the Federal Reserve Act. Like with the farming act, this Act split the U.S. into twelve regions with a Federal Reserve bank in each region. 7: 1934-1941
Underwood Tariff (1913)
Pushed through Congress by Woodrow Wilson, this 1913 tariff reduced average tariff duties by almost 15% and established a graduated income tax
The constitutional amendment adopted in 1913 that explicitly permitted Congress to levy an income tax.
"Elasticity" of the currency
Elastic currency is currency the volume of which would be regulated automatically by the demands of business. In order to attain that end it would be necessary to authorize the issue of circulating notes by banks under such conditions as would make it profitable to the banks to increase the volume of their oustanding notes in times of trade activity and large demand for money and make it expensive for them to maintain a large volume of outstanding circulation in times of business depression and stagnation in the money markets. Various propositions to provide for such a currency have been advanced, all based on the theory of note issues secured, at least in part, by the general assets of the banks instead of by a deposit of bonds and regulated by a graduated tax on the amount of circulation issued, the high tax being expected to discourage excessive issues, except at times when the need for more money is marked and imperative and when its absence would result in stringency and abnormal interest rates , thus discouraging enterprise and restricting business. There was a plan at one time for an elastic currency based on bond s. It was proposed that the government should issue bonds which might at will be converted by the holders into currency and which might be reissued by the government for currency. The bonds were to bear interest only while outstanding. It was assumed that when money was in excessive supply the bonds would be held in preference to currency, while on the other hand, when the supply of currency was inadequate the deficiency could readily be made up by converting bonds into currency. The bonds were to be sold by the government for gold which was to be held as a special fund so that when bonds were turned back to the government the currency exchanged for them would be secured by the gold received for the bonds. Two objections to the plan were raised and caused it to be abandoned. One objection was that the proceeds of the bonds would not be available for the general purposes of the government. The other objection was that the plan made the government responsible for the regulation of the money market and imposed an additional tax on the people to the extent of the interest paid on the bonds.
Federal Reserve Bank (1913)
One of the 12 operating arms of the Federal Reserve System, located throughout the nation, that together with their 25 Branches carry out various System functions, including operating a nationwide payments system, distributing the nation's currency and coin, supervising and regulating banks, analyzing economic conditions, and serving as banker for the U.S. Treasury.
Federal Reserve notes
paper currency issued by the fed that eventually replaced all other types of federal currency
Federal Trade Commission (1914)
A banner accomplishment of Woodrow Wilson's administration, this law empowered a standing, presidentially appointed commission to investigate illegal business practices in interstate commerce like unlawful competition, false advertising and mislabeling of goods.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914)
Lengthened Sherman Anti-Trust Act's list of practices. Exempted labor unions from being called trusts, legalized strikes and peaceful picketing by labor union members.
"Populist" farm laws of 1916
This would be a good essay!
Workman's Compensation Act (1916)
Granted assistance to federal civil-service employees during periods of disability--act restricting child labor invalidated by the Supreme Court.
Adamson Act (1916)
This law established an eight-hour day for all employees on trains involved in interstate commerce, with extra pay for overtime. It was the first federal law regulating the hours of workers in private companies, and was upheld by the Supreme Court Wilson v. New (1917).
Louis D. Brandeis
an American litigator, Supreme Court Justice, advocate of privacy, and developer of the Brandeis Brief. In addition, he helped lead the American Zionist movement
Jones Act (1916)
Law according territorial status to the Philippines and promising independence as soon as a "stable government" could be established. The United States did not grant the Philippines independence until July 4, 1946. (734)
Haiti and Dominican Republic (1915)
Wilson was forced to use Roosevelt's Corollary to intervene with the riotous people, sending marines to protect American lives and property; concluded with American supervision and occupation
Gen. Victoriano Huerta
Indian revolutionary president of Mexico; collapsed in July 1914 under pressure from Argentina, Brazil, and Chile; succeeded by Venustiano Carranza
(1859-1920) Mexican revolutionist and politician; he led forces against Vitoriano Huerta during the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920).
Francisco "Pancho" Villa (1916)
A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata.
Gen. John "Black Jack" Pershing
this man replaced Marshall Fock in commanding the US army and with him the war ended in 9 months/ nick-named because he commanded black soldiers/ he was an AEF
in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies
in World War I the alliance of Great Britain and France and Russia and all the other nations that became allied with them in opposing the Central Powers
Neutrality Proclamation (1914)
Wilson called for Americans to "be neutral in thought as well as in deed"; America remained out of World War I, but was allowed to trade with both Central Powers and Allies
Kaiser Wilhelm II
was the Kaiser of Germany at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.
British blockade of Germany
Did not allow Germany to trade with America, although they rightfully could in the Neutrality Proclamation; the British blocked major German seaports with mines and warships to cease trade between America and Germany
the right to sail the seas and not take sides in a war
German submarines used in World War I
Was a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The unrestricted submarine warfare caused the U.S. to enter World War I against the Germans.
Sussex Pledge (1916)
Enacted after the sinking of the French liner "Sussex"; Germany promised not to sink enemy vessels without warning, while the Allies had to modify their "illegal blockade"
Charles Evans Hughes
Secretary of State under Harding, Proposed a 10-year moratorium on the construction of major new warships at the Washington Conference
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