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Geology & Cinema 1001 University of Minnesota

What is the average radius of the Earth?

6000 km

What is the thickness of oceanic crust?

5 km

What are the compositional layers?

Crust, mantle, core

What is the strongest mechanical layering?


What is the compositional layer with the least volume?


A zone that is a type of convergent boundary?


Is there a material as old as the Earth?


How many terrestrial planets (not counting the asteroid belt) are there?


Counting outward from the Sun, Earth is planet number?


Earth is the largest terrestrial planet in our solar system? T/F


4 elements that are a common part of Earth's mantle?

Fe, Mg, Si, O

The Earth's core is nearly pure Fe? T/F


Diamond and graphite are...?

Identical in composition but different in crystalline structure

Which of the following is the complex ion that forms the basic building block of all silicate minerals?


Seismicity is common along plate boundaries? T/F


The planets all orbit the Sun in the same direction? T/F


Earth's moon, in comparison to other planets with moons, is how big?

Relatively large to Earth

What is the current favored theory for formation of the moon?

Large Impact

What is the most efficient means of getting heat out of the mantle?


About how fast do the plates move?


Two or more minerals can share the same chemical composition? T/F


Is Halite (NaCl) ionically bonded?


A mineral group is the most abundant in the Earth's crust?


A plate can grow smaller with time? T/F


The oldest oceanic lithosphere is almost always found in the middle of oceans? T/F


The amount of land surface hasn't changed much at all through Earth's history? T/F


In Journey to the Center of the Earth, where are Trevor, Sean and Hannah?

In a volcano in Iceland

Continental crust is produced at mid-ocean ridges? T/F


Which of the following is not a scientific impossibility portrayed as?

Rocks that are naturally magnetic

About how old is the Earth (in years; one billion equals 1000 million):

4500 Million

A really cold winter is proof that global warming is a hoax? T/F


A release of methane hydrates or clathrates (same thing) would lower global temperatures by reflecting incoming sunlight? T/F


Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by about how much in the past century?

100 ppm

Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is at an all-time high? T/F


During the last 800,000 years, northern hemisphere glaciations have occurred about how often?

Every 100,000 years

Earth gets more total sunlight when eccentricity is high? T/F


Faster plate spreading rates at mid-ocean ridges are a likely cause of higher sea level in the past? T/F


For the same slope, would shear stress be greater on the Earth or Moon?


From which direction does the wind in MN usually come?


Ice ages are common throughout Earth's history? T/F


Mass wasting is an important process on rocky (i.e., sediment poor) shorelines? T/F


Mean annual temperature in the northern hemisphere has increased by about how much in the last century?

0.5 C

Milankovitch hypothesized that ice ages developed when winters are coldest?


One can discern the direction of longshore drift by examining the amount of sand on the two sides of a jetty or groin? T/F


Output of the Sun is effectively constant? T/F


Over the last 500 Ma, sea-level is thought to have varied by roughly how much?

500 m

Rocky beaches are more common on uplifted coastlines? T/F


Surface currents and water waves are the same thing?


Surface currents rotate clockwise in the northern hemisphere? T/F


The Atlantic Ocean off of the east coast of the US has high salinity because evaporation significantly exceeds precipitation there? T/F


The cations that comprise part of ocean salinity are largely from terrestrial weathering? T/F


The greenhouse effect works by atmospheric absorption of visible light from the sun? T/F


The little ice age, a period of cold temperatures in N. America and Europe, occurred about how long ago?

4000 years ago

The net transport of water is parallel to average wind direction? T/F


The superstorms in The Day After Tomorrow are (think about the direction of vertical airflow; is it up or down?) high or low pressure?

high pressure cells

The Younger Dryas, a period of cold climate that followed deglaciation in the northern hemisphere occurred about

10,000 years ago

Thermohaline circulation is driven by density variations of seawater? T/F


To what does angle of repose refer?

The steepest stable angle loose sediment can maintain

Tsunamis are just long wavelength ocean waves? T/F


Water vapor is the primary greenhouse gas? T/F


Wave base is about what fraction of wavelength deep?


Wave refraction creates longshore drift or, at least, accentuates it? T/F


We live in the hottest period of Earth's history? T/F


What does water do to shear strength?

Increases and decreases it

What is regolith?

Unconsolidated material on the Earth's surface

What would have the higher angle of repose?

Mixture of sand and gravel

When the volume of ice in ice caps increases, the ratio of oxygen 18 to oxygen 16 in the oceans increases? T/F


When was the last snowball Earth thought to have occurred?

500 Ma

What has an effect on global temperature?

Volcanoes, output of the sun, ocean circulation, orbital variations

Which of the following is a place where surface water descends to form deep water?

North Atlantic

What is closest to the angle of repose of dry sand (all numbers stated in degrees) ?


Which of the following is not a means of removing dissolved content from ocean water?

Volcano outgassing

Which of the following is not a potential sink of sand to a beach?

Offshore transport

What are potential sources of sand to a beach?

Dune erosion, stream discharge, longshore drift, onshore drift

What is evidence of creep on a hillslope?

Curved tree trunks, tension cracks

Which of the following is the least likely mass wasting trigger?


Which value is closest to the amplitude of the tides in open water?

1 m

Which value is closest to the average salinity of ocean water?


In the movie Volcano, about how long does the magma take to rise from deep in?

A day

In the movie Volcano magma/lava killed many people in what ways?

Volcanic bomb, melted by lava, gas emission burns

In the movie Volcano, which of the following volcano phenomena occurs

Ash fall, lava stream, gas emissions, volcanic bombs

Melting in subduction zones is largely a result of...?


Volcanic island chains in the Pacific are arrayed in lines. This is because they represent magma leaking through long cracks in the crust? T/F


Sediments become sedimentary rock with time; nothing else is needed? T/F


What magma is more likely to erupt explosively?

One which would crystallize into a rhyolite

Magmas contain nothing more than molten rock? T/F


Melting of rock is an uncommon occurrence in the mantle? T/F



Temperatures increase with depth within the Earth along curves

Most magmas and lavas are silicic? T/F


The composition of melt and the parent solid are identical? T/F


Ocean crust is chemically closest to...?


A nearly horizontal layer of crystallized magma is called a...?


Igneous rock with large crystals cooled slow or fast?

Cooled slowly

Volcanic bombs are just large sized tephra? T/F


The islands in the Hawaiian island chain are good examples of stratovolcanoes? T/F


Which gas is commonly emitted by volcanoes?

Carbon Dioxide

The last time Earth's magnetic field reverse polarity was closest to how many years ago?

1,000,000 years ago

Metamorphism usually changes rock chemical composition? T/F


Metamorphism involves melting? T/F


Ripples propagate which way?


Which of the following is not a common cement in clastic sedimentary rocks?


The horizontal banding obvious in many sedimentary rocks is called what?


Sediment deposits are typically close to horizontal? T/F


Which medium moves the most sediment?


Relative to sediment near the top of an accumulation, sediment near the base was...?

Deposited earlier

Geomagnetic north never changes? T/F


Which rock-forming mineral is important in recording Earth's magnetic field?

None of the above

Earth's magnetic field closely resembles that of a giant bar magnet? T/F


In Tidal Wave, John Wahl stops the last tsunami by?

Triggering a 2nd tsunami that cancels the first

A landslide on the seafloor could trigger a large tsunami as depicted in the movie Tidal Wave? T/F


Most of the world's water is salt water? T/F


There is no strong evidence that the amount of water on Earth's surface has changed dramatically in the last 100 Ma? T/F


The residence time of water in the oceans in about two weeks? T/F


Water typically moves faster through primary porosity than secondary? T/F


The water table is visible within 1 km of the classroom? T/F


The cone of depression is...?

A lowering of the water table near an operating well

Turbulent flow is more likely when...?

When water moves fast

Small, steep mountain streams have higher competence than major trunk? T/F


On which side of a river bend would you expect to find deeper water?


How does average grain size tend to decrease with distance downstream?

Abrasion and Selective sorting

A graded stream is no longer doing any work on the landscape? T/F


A one-hundred year flood could happen two years in a row? T/F


The oceans are really one interconnected ocean? T/F


Abyssal plains are found where?

Under much of the world's oceans

Increasing the confining pressure of ice promotes what?

Ductile flow

The most reasonable velocity for glacier flow is?

50 cm/year

Ductile flow in glaciers happens year round? T/F


Retreating glaciers flow uphill? T/F


Glacial ice below the snowline formed there? T/F


Lateral moraines form as melting ice deposits the sediment it was carrying? T/F


River valleys are V-shaped? T/F


If you melt all the ice on the planet, very little land will be left exposed? T/F


The discharge of a stream during flood stage increases very rapidly with increasing recurrence interval? T/F


Stream discharge lags precipitation by less time in urban watersheds? T/F


A rocket launched along a path following the equator would appear to travel what way?

Neither north nor south

Hurricanes rotate counter-clockwise in the northern hemisphere? T/F


The water in Earth's oceans was significant less saline in the distant geological past than today? T/F


Water in the hydrosphere may have be from (at least in part) from comets? T/F


What was threatening the main characters in Ice Age 2?

Outburst flood

The main characters in Ice Age 2 are mammals that co-existed when?

The Pleistocene (2 Ma to 10,000 years ago)

A fault that cuts both a fold and an igneous intrusion proves the intrusion is older than the fault? T/F


About how many years old did Bishop Ussher believe the Earth to be?

6000 years

About how thick is the troposphere?

10 km

Aerobic bacteria appear in the geologic record more than 1 billion years? T/F


Air moves because of differences in pressure? T/F


An eroded anticline has the oldest rocks outcropping near the fold axis? T/F


At about which latitude (north and south of the equator) do most deserts exist?

20-30 degrees

Carbon 14 would be a good method to assign ages to fossil organisms? T/F


Faults are expressions of brittle deformation of rock? T/F


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