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Terms in this set (44)
death by injury; lack of oxygen and/or ATP, mechanical, chemicals
may occur as a result of injury but more often considered physiological death by "suicide": internal/external signals
Which mechanism of cell death causes inflammation which in turn lead to further tissue injury?
Which of the following terms is not a term used to describe a form of atypical cell death?
Which cellular death mechanism releases cellular material (including degradative enzymes) into surround tissue leading to damage of neighboring cells?
a progressive injury can lead to necrosis, an ____________ reaction
Which of the following biological processes does Apoptosis not participate in?
therapeutic treatment of disease
pathogenesis of disease
One apoptotic execution signals go out, can it be reversed?
no - irreversible death
What are 3 reasons why physiologic apoptosis is required?
1. for proper development (digits)
2. to eliminate cells that are no longer needed (growth factors in uterus)
3. eliminate threats to the host
excess apoptosis contributes to what?
disease via cell loss
insufficient apoptosis and/or failure of cells to undergo apoptosis contributes to what?
survival of unwanted cells
possible resistance to therapy
What's an example of an apoptotic failure deformity?
Provide an example of when apoptosis removes growth factors that are no longer needed:
apoptosis allowing the uterus to return to original size after hormone-dependent pregnancy
What is host cell mediated killing?
CTL and NK cells kill virally infected cells, tumor cells, and self reactive lymphocytes (autoimmune diseases) via apoptosis in target cells
What are the 3 types of apoptosis?
What are 3 Iatrogenic causes of apoptosis?
1. Tx cancer via cytotoxic drugs and radiation
2. Tx of autoimmune disease
3. Tx thyroid goiters
What is iatrogenic apoptosis?
what a doctor induces in his patients
tumor suppressor, guardian angel of the genome - initiates apoptosis if cell can't fix itself - signals caspases
cystein proteases that cleave proteins after asp residues (Cysteine-depenent ASPartate-directed proteASES) - the executioner cells induced by p53 - the cells that actually induce the apoptosis
Removal of cells that are damaged beyond repair
What are 4 causes of Pathologic apoptosis?
1. DNA damage from radiation, cytotoxic drugs, hypoxia, free radicals
2. Accumulation of misfolded proteins
4. atrophy (degradation/ineffectiveness) associated with duct obstruction
part of the inflammatory response - comes and eats the dead results of injury and releases enzymes that kill everything surrounding the area in necrosis
T or F: Plasma membrane ruptures in apoptotic cells
How are apoptotic cells removed?
by tissue phagocytes (macrophages)
What are the morphologic changes associated with apoptosis?
-Cytoplasm, organelles, and eventually chromatin condensation
- DNA fragmentation
- DNA and cytoplasmic organelle blebs form
- blebs removed by macrophages
be able to identify a histological apoptotic cell?
first to be activated (telling to do the killing)
activate downstream effector caspases
cleave numerous cell substrates destroying cellular components (doing the killing)
Death receptor (extrinsic) pathways
receptor-ligand interaction --> activator proteins --> initiator caspases
What 2 receptors are used in the extrinsic pathway?
Cell injury --> Bcl-2 sensors --> Bcl-2 effectors --> Mitochondria --> pro-apoptotic proteins --> apoptosome -->initiator caspases
What are the effectors in the Bcl-2 intrinsic pathway?
What are the proapoptotic proteins in the intrinsic pathway?
True or False: regardless of which pathway, both initiate same execution pathway
Which pathway does mitochondria play a key role in?
When mitochondria becomes leaky, what is decreased? increased? and then subsequently induced?
ATP, reactive oxygen species, necrosis
What does cytochome C induce before the caspace pathway is triggered?
a stabalized apoptosome
Mitochondria become leaky (or permeable) due to opening of the _____________________
permeability transition pore complex (PTPC)
What makes the mitochondria leaky in the intrinsic pathway?
Pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins (Bax etc.) lead to opening of pore
What keeps the mitochondria pore normally closed?
What are the two mechanisms that execution caspases have?
1. endonuclease activation (gobble up/fragment DNA)
2. Proteolytic degradation of cytoskeleton
--> both lead to blebs
True or false: apoptosis generally involves single cells
is the cytoplasm retained in apoptotic bodies?
What are 3 things that trigger mitochondrial (intrinsic) pathway?
1. loss of survival signals
2. DNA damage
3. accumulation of misfolded proteins
What is P-R interval of EKG?
What does Estrogen do in a female?
What is pericarditis? What is Dressler's syndrome?
What is the definition of depression?
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