PPE 3003 Exam 1 Ch 2
Terms in this set (31)
Self-Report Data (S-Data)
The information a person reveals; done through interviews, reports, questionnaires, checklists, etc.; can be unstructured (open-ended q's) or structured (forced choice q's); good because people know stuff about themselves that others don't, bad because people can lie.
Observer Report Data (O-Data)
The information that friends, families, casual acquaintances, etc. can reveal about a person's personality; done through professional personality assessors or intimate observers, & in a naturalistic or artificial setting; good because multiple observers & they may have access to info not attainable through other sources.
Test Data (T-Data)
Participants are placed in a standardized testing situation to see if different people react or behave differently to an identical situation; designed to elicit behaviors that serve as indicators of personality (ex. emergencies); behaviors can be "scored" by independent raters; bad because can be influenced by knowledge of experiment or researcher.
Life-Outcome Data (L-Data)
Information that can be extracted from the events, activities, & outcomes in a person's life that are available to public scrutiny; ex. marriage/divorce records, clubs a person joins, etc.; can be bad because life outcomes are caused by several different factors (race, gender, etc.)
Make a Test Scientifically Useful
Reliability, validity, & generalizability.
3 Types of Reliability
Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, & inter-rater reliability.
Done through "repeated measurement"; repeat a measurement over time for the same people & if the 2 tests yield similar scores for most people, the test has a high this...
Done by examining the relationships among the items themselves at a single point in time; if the items within a test- viewed as a form of repeated measurement- all correlate well with each other, then the scale has a high...
Done by obtaining measurements from multiple observers; when different observers agree with each other, measure has high...
(Only applicable for O-data measures)
Extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure.
4 Types of Validity
Face, predictive, convergent, & discriminant.
Whether the test, on the SURFACE, measures what it appears to measure.
Predictive (Criterion) Validity
The extent to which performance on a test is related to later performance that the test was designed to predict; ex. SAT predicts how high school students will perform in college.
The degree to which scores on a test correlate with scores on other tests that are designed to assess the same construct; ex. people's scores on an aggressiveness test correlate with people's scores on another aggressiveness test.
The degree to which scores on a test
correlate with scores from other tests that
designed to assess the same construct; ex. scores on a test designed to assess aggressiveness should aren't correlated with scores from tests designed to assess intelligence.
Reliability vs. Validity
A scale (rating something 0-5, etc.) can be reliable but not valid.
The degree to which a scale is valid across various groups & various situations.
Types of Research Methods
Correlational, experimental, & case studies.
Naturally occurring relationships; ex. are X & Y related to each other?; range from 1.0-1.0, closer to 1=stronger, closer to 0=weaker; same direction=positive, different direction=negative.
Advantages of Correlational Research
Describes the relationships between variables; can measure things you can't control.
Disadvantages of Correlational Research
Correlation does NOT equal causation.
Third Variable Problem
Two variables could be correlated because some, third unknown variable is causing both; "Can something else cause both variables?"
If A & B are correlated, we do not know if A is the cause of B or if B is the cause of A (or 3rd variable problem); "Can the second variable cause the first variable?"
Systematically controls & manipulates events; can determine causality (whether 1 variable influences another variable); examine cause-effect relationships; is X the cause of Y?
Experimental Research Features
Manipulation (control) & random assignment.
Manipulation of independent variable (participant) while all other variables (participants) are kept constant.
Helps ensure that all groups are the same (constant) at the beginning of a study.
Benefits of Experimental Research
Effective at demonstrating relationships among variables; Manipulation & random assignment help ensure that extraneous factors are canceled out; by comparing differences between t-test & p-value results among groups in 2 conditions, statistical significance (whether personality influences how people perform) is determined.
Determined by t-test & p-values; if the results could have occurred by chance 5 or fewer times out of 100; p < .05.
Examine one person in depth; results sometimes used to test a larger population.
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