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US History Chapter 15, 16, and Bill of Rights Test

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Missouri Compromise
Compromise introduced by Henry Clay of Kentucky in 1820 that preserved the balance between slave and free states in the Senate. It temporarily calmed the fierce argument over slavery. The Compromise admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. It also banned slavery in territories north of 36 degrees 30 latitude, while territories south of the line were open to slavery.
Sectionalism
loyalty to one's region of a country. Regional conflict between two regions.
Wilmot Proviso
act that specified that slavery should be prohibited in any lands that might be acquired from Mexico
John C. Calhoun
Senator from South Carolina who was against the Wilmot Proviso. He believed neither Congress nor any territorial government had the authority to ban slavery from a territory or regulate it in any way
Zachary Taylor
Southerner and hero of the Mexican War who became President in 1849
Free Soil Party
Political Party in the U.S. that used the slogan "Free soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men," and endorsed the Wilmot Proviso
Compromise of 1850
compromise proposed by Henry Clay that admitted California as a free state, but passed the Fugitive Salve Law which required the capture and return of runaway slaves, even in the North
Fugitive Slave Act
law that required all citizens to help catch runaway slaves, and return the slaves to their owners
Kansas-Nebraska Act
act passed by Congress in 1854 that allowed the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to vote on whether to allow slavery
Popular Sovereignty
allowing people to decide
Bleeding Kansas
civil war that broke out between citizens in Kansas over the slavery issue
John Brown
Abolitionist who led a raid in 1859 in Harpers Ferry, Virginia where he tried to capture rifles and arm the slaves for a mass rebellion
states' rights
what Southerners justified secession with
Abraham Lincoln
the winner of the election of 1860
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates
a series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas to discuss slavery
The Confederates attacking Ft. Sumter
the start of the actual fighting of the Civil War
West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri
5 states that allowed slavery but did not succeed from the Union
definition of states's rights
When state and federal laws come into conflict, state laws overrule federal law
John C. Calhoun
the Senator from South Carolina that was against the Wilmot Proviso. He was pro-slavery and believed neither Congress nor any territorial government had the authority to ban slavery from a territory or regulate it in any way
Dred Scott
An enslaved African American that was taken from by his slaveholder from Missouri-a slave state to Illinois-a free state. He claimed that since he had lived in a free state, he should be free
James Buchanan
Democrat from Pennsylvania who became President in the election of 1856
Confederacy
Nation formed in 1861
Harriet Beecher Stowe
wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin" a book that revealed slavery to be a brutal, cruel system
the annexation of Texas
The main issue in the election of 1844
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Supreme Court decision that said slaves were property so therefore they could not become citizens
Laws that were attempts to eventually end slavery
Compromise of 1850, Missouri Compromise, Kansas-Nebraska Act, 3/5ths Compromise
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
quote said by Abraham Lincoln
"We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection."
Why it was important to keep an equal balance between slave and free states
So one side would not have a voting advantage over the other
1861-1865
the years the Civil War was fought
Strong support of the white population, fighting a defensive war, strong military leadership, fighting in familiar territory, defending their land
5 advantages the Confederate states had over the Unites States/Union
A larger population, more industry, more abundant resources, better transportation/more miles of railroad, Abraham Lincoln as a leader
five advantages the Union had over Confederate states
Smaller population of free men to draw from, few factories to make weapons and other supplies, fewer miles of railroads which made the transporting of goods and supplies more difficult
three disadvantages of the Confederate states
In the beginning, weak military leaders, lack of support for the war by all white Northerners
two disadvantages of the Union
Abraham Lincoln
president of the US during the Civil War
Robert E. Lee
the military commander for Confederates/South
Ulysses S. Grant
Toward the middle to the end of the Civil War, the military leader of the Union/North/United States
the role Clara Barton played in the Civil War
She delivered supplies and comforted the wounded for the Union army. Organized the American Red Cross and served as its president for more than 20 years.
the significance of the Battle of Gettysburg
Union forces defeated Robert E. Lee. It was a major turning point in the Civil War.
the man Lee surrendered to at Appomattox Court House, Virginia in 1865
Union General Ulysses S. Grant
Why controlling the Mississippi River vital to the North and the South
It was a main transportation route and it cut off Confederate supplies from the Great State of Texas
significance of the attack on Fort Sumter by Confederate forces in 1861
the Civil War begins
significance of Monitor v. Merrimack, 1862
it was the first battle between two metal-covered ships
significance of Emancipation Proclamation
issued in1863 by Abraham Lincoln. It freed all African Americans in the Confederate held South
significance of Lincoln's being reelected in 1864
peace and a United Nation were in sight, continuity
significance of Appomattox Courthouse
site where Lee surrendered to Grant, ending the Civil War in 1865
Stephen Crane
person who wrote The Red Badge of Courage
What it was like to fight and live during the Civil War
what The Red Badge of Courage was about
significance of the Battle of Antietam
Bloodiest single day battle of the Civil War. The battle forced Confederate general Robert E. Lee to retreat, narrow victory for the North
abolishes slavery
the main provision of the13th Amendment
Equal protection of the laws for all citizens and declared that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens
the 14th Amendment guarantees...
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of "race, color, or previous servitude. Gave African American males the right to vote
the main provision of the 15th Amendment
the 54th Massachusetts
One of the most famous African American regiments that fought in the Civil War. Led by a white abolitionist
His march through Atlanta, Georgia, where he practically destroyed everything in his path. He practiced total war
What Union General Tecumseh Sherman is known for
First full scale battle. It was won the Confederates. Showed that the Confederates would be difficult to defeat
significance of the Battle of Bull Run
narrow victory for the North, helped Union gain control of a part of the Mississippi River
significance of the Battle of Shiloh
narrow victory for the North, bloodiest single day battle of the Civil War. North gains confidence, Lee has to retreat
significance of the Battle of Antietam
turning point in favor of the North. 51,000 died
significance of Battle of Gettysburg
Victory by Grant/Union forces. Helped Union/North gain control of Mississippi River, thus cutting The Great State of Texas off from the rest of the Confederacy
significance of Battle of Vicksburg
Habeas Corpus guarantees accused individuals the right to a hearing before being jailed
Habeas Corpus guarantees...
Abraham Lincoln to keep individuals from speaking out against the war
the person that suspended habeas corpus and why
The Great State of Texas, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee
the 11 Confederate States
He was worried that the Border States, where slavery was legal, would leave the Union
Why Lincoln was nervous about signing the Emancipation Proclamation
Stonewall Jackson
One of the top Confederate generals. Died from friendly fire
David Farragut
Union commander who captured the Southern port at New Orleans thus making it difficult for the South to receive and ship goods
total war
Complete destruction destroying the infrastructure of an opponent. Example Sherman's march to the Sea
How was the strong belief in states' rights a disadvantage for the South?
The individual states refused to give the Confederate government sufficient power, thus making it difficult to fight the war.
Richmond, which was only 100 miles from the Union capital of Washington D.C.
the capital of the Confederate States of America
Missouri could control parts of the Mississippi and major routes to the West. Kentucky controlled the Ohio River, while Delaware was close to Philadelphia. Maryland was probably the most important border state of all. Many vital railroad lines passed through Maryland. Also, Washington D.C. lay within the state of Maryland and if Maryland seceded, the North's government would have been surrounded.
it was very important for the Union to keep Border States because losing them would seriously weaken the North. All had strategic locations. Why were they so important?
the Gettysburg Address
Two-minute speech given by President Abraham Lincoln on November 13, 1863, at a ceremony dedicating a cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
"Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal."... "that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom - and that a government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth."
1st Amendment
Freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, the right to petition the government
2nd Amendment
Protects the rights of states to maintain a militia and of citizens to bear arms
3rd Amendment
The guarantee that civilians will not be forced to house soldiers
4th Amendment
Protection against unreasonable searches by law-enforcement officers
5th Amendment
Assures the right not to be deprived of "life, liberty, or property, without due process of law" The right of a person to know why he or she has been arrested and to refuse to testify against himself or herself in a court of law
6th Amendment
The right to a speedy trial by a jury of one's peers in criminal cases
7th Amendment
The right to a trial by jury in civil cases involving substantial amounts of money cases involving common law
8th Amendment
Protects against excessive bail, or cruel and unusual punishment
9th Amendment
The guarantee that rights not specifically listed in the Constitution are not automatically denied to the people
10th Amendment
The guarantee that the people and the states are to keep powers not specifically granted to the federal government