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APUSH The American Pageant 12e Chapter 23 Politics in the Gilded Age, 1869-1896
Terms in this set (50)
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
"Waving the bloody shirt"
An expression used as a vote getting stratagem by the Republicans during the election of 1876 to offset charges of corruption by blaming the Civil War on the Democrats.
"Jubilee Jim" Fisk
One of the two millionaire partners, who were notorius in the financial world. Fisk provided the brass while the undersized and cunning Gould provided the brains.
United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892)
William Tweed, head of Tammany Hall, NYC's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. Example: Responsible for the construction of the NY court house; actual construction cost $3million. Project cost tax payers $13million.
Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
a joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad. It was involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes.
During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.
Party formed in 1872 (split from the ranks of the Republican Party) which argued that the Reconstruction task was complete and should be set aside. Significantly dampered further Reconstructionist efforts.
An American newspaper editor and founder of the Republican party. His New York Tribune was America's most influential newspaper 1840-1870. Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms.
General Amnesty Act (1872)
Repealed part of 14th Amend. That forbade former Confed. from holding public office
Panic of 1873
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver
Name given to paper money issued by the government during the Civil War, so called because the back side was printed with green ink. They were not redeemable for gold, but $300 million were issued anyway. Farmers hit by the depression wanted to inflate the notes to cover losses, but Grant vetoed an inflation bill and greenbacks were added to permanent circulation. In 1879 the federal government finally made greenbacks redeemable for gold.
Resumption Act of 1875
..., required the government to continue to withdraw greenbacks from circulation and to redeem all paper currency in gold at face value beginning in 1879.
"Crime of '73"
..., through the coinage act of 1873, the US ended the minting of silver dollars and placed the country on the gold standard. this was attacked by those who supported an inflationary monetary policy, particularly farmers and believed in the unlimited coinage of silver
Greenback Labor Party (1878)
..., Political party devoted to improving the lives of laborers and raising inflation, reaching its high point in 1878 when it polled over a million votes and elected fourteen members of Congress.
..., A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
Grand Army of the Republic (GAR)
..., a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army who had served in the American Civil War
..., Republicans in the 1870s who supported Ulysses Grant and Roscoe Conkling; they accepted machine politics and the spoils system and were challenged by other Republicans called Half-Breeds, who supported civil service reform.
"Half-Breeds"/Sen. James B. Blaine
..., during the presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881), a moderate Republican party faction led by Senator James Blaine that favored some reforms of the civil service system and a restrained policy toward the defeated South. They were half loyal to Grant and half committed to reform the spoils system
Rep. Rutherford B. Hayes (1876)
..., 19th president of the United States, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history
Samuel J. Tilden
..., Hayes' opponent in the 1876 presidential race, he was the Democratic nominee who had gained fame for putting Boss Tweed behind bars. He collected 184 of the necessary 185 electoral votes.
Compromise of 1877
..., agreement that ended the disputed election of 1876 between Rutherford Hayes and Samuel Tilden; under its terms, the South accepted Hayes's election. In return, the North agreed to remove the last troops from the South, support southern railroads, and accept a southerner into the Cabinet. The Compromise of 1877 is generally considered to mark the end of Reconstruction.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
..., Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Civil Rights Cases (1883)
..., A case in which the court ruled that Congress could not legislate against the racial discrimination practiced by private citizens, which included railraods, hotels, and other businesses used by the public.
"Jim Crow" laws
..., laws which promoted segregation, or the separation of people based on race. These laws worked primarily to restricted the rights of African Americans to use certain schools and public facilities, usually the good ones; to vote; find decent employment and associate with anyone of their own choosing. These laws did not make life "separate but equal," but only served to exclude African Americans and others from exercising their rights as American citizens. In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), the US Supreme Court ruled that Jim Crow laws were unconstitutional. It took many years and much effort, however, before Jim Crow laws would be overturned across the country.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
..., The Supreme Court case that upheld a Louisiana segregation law on the theory that as long as the accommodations between the racially segregated facilities were equal, the equal protection clause was not violated. The Court's ruling effectively established the constitutionality of racial segregation and the notion of "separate but equal."
..., Irish immigrant who settled in San Fransicso and fought for workers rights. He led strikes in protest of the growing number of imported Chineseworkers who worked for less than the Americans. Founded the Workingman's Party, which was later absorbed into the Granger movement.
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
..., United States federal law passed on May 6, 1882, following revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend immigration, and Congress subsequently acted quickly to implement the suspension of Chinese immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years.
U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark (1898)
..., Supreme Court ruled in favor of Chinese born Americans, felt that they could not strip them of citizenship because of 14th Amendment
James A. Garfield
20th President: 1881, Republican, Greenback Labor Party, Republican - protective tariff, Democrats - revenue tariff, shot by Julius Guiteau (mental unstable, thought unfair spoils system)
..., assassinated President James to make civil service reform a reality. He shot Garfield because he believed that the Republican Party had not fulfilled its promise to give him a government job.
Chester A. Arthur 1881
..., Appointed customs collector for the port of New York - corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield's running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so Arthur became the 21st president.
Pendleton Act of 1883
..., Federal legislation which created a system in which federal employees were chosen on the basis of competitive examinations, therefore making merit, or ability, the reason for hiring people to fill federal positions
Civil Service Commission
..., created by Pendleton Act to oversee examinations for potential government employees
..., A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.
Rep. Grover Cleveland
..., 22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, as Rep, fought corruption. As President, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes
..., the twenty-third President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893. He had previously served as a senator from Indiana. His administration is best known for a series of legislation including the McKinley Tariff and federal spending that reached one billion dollars. Democrats attacked the "Billion Dollar Congress" and defeated the GOP in the 1890 mid-term elections, as well as defeating Harrison's bid for reelection in 1892. He is to date the only president from Indiana.
Thomas B. Reed
Republican Speaker of the House in 1888, he gained a reputation for an iron grip over Congress and kept Democrats in line.
Republican congress of 1890. passed record # of significant laws that helped shape later policies and asserted authority of federal govt., gave pensions to Civil War veterans, increased government silver purchases, and passed McKinley Tariff Act of 1890
McKinley Tariff Act
..., raised tariffs to the highest level they had ever been. Big business favored these tariffs because they protected U.S. businesses from foreign competition.
A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
People's Party ("Populists")
Started as Farmer's Alliance, farmers came together and became organized, translated into Populists. Wanted to unite farmers of south/west/poor blacks and whites and industrial/factory workers
James B. Weaver
former Civil War general who ran for president with the Greenback Party (1880) and the Populist Party (1892).
Homestead Steel Strike
In 1892- one of the most violent strikes in America at the Carnegie Steel Company. 7 people died. 300 Pinkerton detectives were hired and there was a battle where they ultimately surrendered.
Colored Farmers National Alliance
More than 1 million southern black farmers organized and shared complaints with poor white farmers. By 1890 membership numbered more than 250,000. The history of racial division in the South, made it hard for white and black farmers to work together in the same org.
elected to the U.S Congress, became known as a champion of Georgia's farmers, and he sponsored and pushed through a law providing for RFD-rural free delivery
Depression of 1893
Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Led to the Pullman strike.
J. P. Morgan
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
1894, This tariff passed by Congress in 1894 restricted US sugar imports. The tariff led to an economic downturn in Cuba, and in turn helped to increase the anger of Cuban natives against colonial Spain. Was 40% rate compared to McKinley Tariff, however again he was defeated on tariff program
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