APUSH Vocab #4
Terms in this set (50)
Second cont congress
Met in 1775. They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Battle of bunker hill
June 1775 Colonists siezed Bunker Hill (Breed's Hill). Americans numbering 1500 soldiers slaughtered the advancing redcoats. Colonists were short on gunpowder and were foced to abandon the hill.
Olive branch petition
Petition sent from congress to King George III stating that the colonists desired peace and wanted the king to protect colonists' rights; he rejected it
German mercenaries that were hated among colonists, and were part of the group that Great Britain recruited to fight against the Americans.
Written by T. Paine in 1776; claimed that colonies had a right to be an independent nation and argued it was common sense to stop following King George III
Declaration of independence
A document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Declaration of rights of man
adopted during French Revolution; modeled after American Declaration of Independence
Those colonists who wanted to remain loyal to the crown and not declare independence.
Colonists in support of independence and fighting the British crown; not loyal
Battle of long island
The Americans were defeated here, they escaped to Manhattan Island and they retreated northward across the Hudson River to New Jersey and finally reached the Deleware River with the British close behind.
Battle of trenton
December 26, 1776: George Washington crossed over ice clogged Delaware River to execute a surprise attack on the sleeping Hessians. He was successful and this was a pivotal battle for the colonists as it helped to lift their spirits and move on with their quest for independence.
Battle of saratoga
Battle won on October 17, 1777 by Washington. Burgoyne pushed northward and was then surronded by a host of American militia men. Benedict Arnold was shot in the leg. British army was trapped and forced to surrender his entire command to American General Horatio Gates.
(1776) Sample treaty drafted by the Continental Congress as a guide for American diplomats.
Treaty of fort stanwix
(1784) Treaty signed by the United States and the pro-British Iroquois granting Ohio country to the Americans.
Privately owned armed ships authorized by Congress to prey on enemy shipping during the Revolutionary War
Battle of yorktown
when Cornwallis was forced to take a defensive position in Yorktown, American and French forces descended from different directions in a joint operational tactic, and caught Cornwallis between land and sea, where he surrendered his whole army of more than 7, 000 on October 17, 1781.
Treaty of Paris 1783
The British recognized the independence of the United States. It granted boundaries, which stretched from the Mississippi on the west, to the Great Lakes on the north, and to Spanish Florida on the south. The Yankees retained a share of Newfoundland. It greatly upset the Canadians.
led a small American force to capture British strongholds at Ticonderoga and Crown Point, obtaining stores of gunpowder and weapons. these supplies proved useful in the seige of Boston
May 1775: American General that led a surprise attack and captured the British garrison at Ticonderoga and crown point. He helped Richard Montgomery lead a failed assault on Quebec. He turned a traitor in America when he plotted with the British to sell out the key stronghold of West Point which commanded the Hudson River for 6,300 pounds because he was greedy and felt his work unappreciated. When the plot was discovered, he fled to the British
Irish born general, formerly of the British army and assisted with the invasion northward. Pushed upward toward Lake Champlain and captured Montreal. Killed during an assault on Quebec on December 31, 1775.
published Common Sense and encouraged American independence
the wife of second president John Adams. She attempted to get rights for the "Ladies" from her husband who at the time was on the committee for designing the Declaration of Independence.
Richard Henry lee
Leader from Virginia in Congress; June 1776 he proposed to Congress a RESOLUTION for independence
Lord Charles cornwallis
British general who fought in the Seven Years War, was elected to the House of Commons in 1760, and lost battles to George Washington on December 26, 1776 and on January 3, 1777. He had many individual victories and losses against the Americans in the American Revolution and will always be remembered as a great and powerful general.
English General who commanded the English forces at Bunker Hill. He did not look forward to the rigors of winter campaigning. At a time when it seemed obvious that he should join the forces in New York, he joined the main British army for an attack on Philadelphia.
British general that submitted a plan for invading New York from Canada. He was then given charge of the army. He was defeated, he advanced troops near Lake Champlain to near Albany. Surrendered at Saratoga on Oct. 17, 1777
helped Jefferson, along with John Adams, to write the Declaration of Independence; a federalist; voiced supdport for the education of women; went to France to negotiate terms and treaty
Comte de rochambeau
Commander of a powerful French army, arrived in Newport Rhode Island. Came in the Summer of 1780.
Colonial general who fought the English in the late eighteenth century-- used fighting tactic of retreating and getting the English to pursue for miles. Historical Significance: Cleared Georgia and South Carolina of British troops.
Mohawk chief who led many Iroquois to fight with Britain against American revolutionaries
George Rogers clark
Frontiersman; led the seizing of 3 British forts in 1777; led to the British giving the region north of the Ohio River to the United States.
Admiral de grasse
He operated a powerful French fleet in the West Indies. He advised America he was free to join with them in an assault on Cornwallis at Yorktown. resulted in Cornwallis's surrender on October 19, 1781.
Articles of confederation
a plan for union. The first "constitution" governing the Untied States after the Revolution; it was ratified in 1781 and it provided for a "firm league of friendship;" the legislative branch (Congress) had no power to regulate commerce or forcibly collect taxes and there was no national executive or judicial branch; it was an important stepping-stone towards the present constitution because without it the states would never have consented to the Constitution.
public domain recently acquired from the states: northwest of the Ohio River, east of the Mississippi River, and south of the Great Lakes
Land ordinance of 1785
A red letter law which stated that disputed land the Old Northwest was to be equally divided into townships and sold for federal income; promoted education and ended confusing legal disagreements over land.
abandoned the ten districts established in 1784, and created a single Northwest Territory out of the lands north of the Ohio; the territory could be divided subsequently between three and five territories, and specified a 60,000 minimum population, religious freedom, prohibition of slavery, and right to trial by jury.
1786- An uprising that flared up in western Massachusetts. Impoverished backcountry farmers, many of them Revolutionary war veterans, were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies. They demanded cheap paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of mortgage fore closures. Hundreds of angry agitators attempted to enforce these demands. Massachusetts authorities, supported by wealthy citizens, raised a small army under General Lincoln. The movement was smashed and Shays was condemned to death then later pardoned. The outburst struck fear in the hearts of the propertied class. The rebellion exposed the need for a stronger central government.
representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress should be based on population, "large state plan"
New Jersey plan
equal representation in a unicameral Congress by states, regardless of size and population, "small state plan"
1787; This compromise was between the large and small states of the colonies. resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators. All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems.
laws that originate from court rulings not legislative status
body of written law through legislative statues or constitutional provisions
was where a black slave was counted as three-fifths of a person when they were counting the population. The southern states wanted them counted as one whole person for more representatives in the House of Representatives. The northern states did not want them counted at all.
People against federalists in 1787; disagreed with the Constitution because they believed people's rights were being taken away without a Bill of Rights; also did not agree with annual elections and the non-existence of God in the government.
Led by Alexander Hamilton; believed in a strong central government, loose interpretation, and encouraged commerce and manufacturing. They were staunch supporters of the Constitution during ratification and were a political force during the early years of the United States. influence declined after the election of Republican Thomas Jefferson to the presidency and disappeared completely after the Hartford Convention.
Society of Cincinnati
the society of Continental Army Officers who formed an exclusive hereditary order; ridiculed by Americas in the 1800s because servitude was unknown
Virginia statue for religious freedom
Thomas Jefferson's won a struggle for the divorce between religion and government in this country
selfless devotion of a mother to her family was often cited as the very model of proper republican behavior; elevated women to a newly prestigious role as the special keepers of the nation's conscience
a radical veteran of the Revolution. He led a rebellion and felt he was fighting against a tyranny. The rebellion was composed of debtors demanding cheap paper money, lighter taxes, and suspension of mortgage foreclosures. He was sentenced to death but was later pardoned. The rebellion in 1786 helped lead to the Constitution and he somewhat became one of the Founding Fathers
Passionate revolutionary, "Give me liberty or give me death"